September 12, 2022


The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework which can explain the structural impediment problem. This problem refers to an organizational structure which maintains the incentive to reduce unique features which might add to new product conceptualization in the new product development process. Based on our framework, the problem is stemmed in two factors as follows. The first one is related to the difficulties of assessing the originality. As originality literally means uniqueness and unconventional, it cannot be evaluated by traditional standards and criteria. The second one is related to the imperative of business performances. Management executives are responsible to business results, sales, profit, reputations of their company, and employees. They prioritize to introduce the products which contributes short term and predictable profits rather than the product with original and unique features. In this paper, we formulate the scheme of the empirical survey. It includes the concepts, dimensions, and proposal indicators. Additionally, based on our survey experiences, we propose three ways to achieve sufficient respondents and estimate survey budgets.

This is the second proof reading version. Please cite it from 大阪学院大学レポジトリlater.

September 12, 2022


The purpose of this paper is to formulate theoretical issues in terms of recovery strategy of Okonomiyaki restaurants in Hiroshima, after COVID-19 pandemic. One of authors reported the recovery level of Okonomiyaki restauratns in Hiroshima on April, August in 2020 and August in 2021 based on huge survey. We actually convince somehow guradual recovery of Okonomiyaki restaurants. There still remains theoretical considerations on why such recovery actualized. We propose, at leaast, three theortical issues which should be analyzed in the future.

September 12, 2022


The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework for understanding matching hypotheses about DMO structure design and site amenity development strategy. DMO is the organinzation at all. Hence, it is logical to assume that its structure naturally follows the organizing principle, management theory. Onece we accept this logic, the organizational structure of DMO could be considered compatible with the development strategy of the destination site amenity development. This paper proposes matching hypotheses between DMO structure and its amenity development strategies. Additionally, we propose the procedure of empirical survey in the future.

This is the second proof reading version. Please cite it from 同志社女子大学レポジトリlater.

September 12, 2022


The purpose of this paper is to illustrate one proposal new single product line marketing strategy. The single product line marketing is regarded as a marginal condition during the company growth under a limited condition, namely, any company grows with multi product line, sooner or later. Even if it is not, single product line management is seen as a cost-leadership strategy and is considered nothing more than volume sales business with small margin. Red Bull is one of the few exceptions in single product line operations, with selling 7.2 billion Red Bull drinks to the worldwide and still growing. In this paper, we conceplualized Red Bull growth starategy and analyzed its competitive advantage.

April 2, 2022


This paper reports the results of searching for what theoretical frameworks can explain regional disparities. Regional disparities here do not refer to the degree of poverty, but to differences in economic development patterns. We explain that differences in economic development patterns are defined by differences in the way regions are connected, and that differences in the way they are connected are strongly related to differences in the ways in which social structures are maintained. This kind of dicussion is expected to relate to the issues that underlie the current problems in Japan. The progress of globalization forces the transformation of the mode of social structure from substantial rationality to formal rationality. In other words, it is a way of maintaining organizations on the basis of accountability and fairness. If we participate in global transacitons, we must change our business relationships from social transaction to economic transactions, and change the mode of social structure.

April 2, 2022


The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical framework for understanding the mechanisms by which place becomes a tourist destination. This paper adopts the analytical framework of the tourism amenity application matrix to develop its theoretical hypotheses. This is because we expect that the framework will allow us to provide a (hypothetical) explanation as to why a particular tourism destination strategy is suitable in a given region. There are two dominant approaches in contemporary tourism studies. One is the Destination Management Organization (DMO) theory and the other is the tourist gaze theory. Both have some logical problems. In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework that addresses some of those problems. It can be expected to help sort out a certain ambiguous situation in which a tourist destination can fail to thrive despite the efforts of a DMO in a given region, or can successfully become a tourist destination without any noticeable effort.

April 2, 2022


This paper develops an analytical framework which can explain a making travel destinations. We are wondering a fact which tourism studies have not had a concensus in terms of the main theme of them. There is no unique theme in tourism studies, each approach has yielded its sole result, each with its sole research theme. There is no relation among them. We propose one original theme of tourism studies, that is, making desitionatios. This theme is expected to include diversified themes so far. Resource application matrix is a method which evaluates performance of the product developments. Applying the matrix to development of toursim spots, this paper will show making processes of them.

February 15, 2021

The Evolution of Merchandise Trade between the Visegrad Group Countries and Japan in the 21st Century

The general purpose of the paper is to identify main trends in merchandise trade between the Visegrad Group countries (V4) and Japan during the first two decades of the 21st century. Our analysis is based on descriptive statistics of the merchandise trade between V4 countries and Japan in 1999-2018, with extracted shorter sub-periods allowing to investigate an eventual influence of: 1) V4 membership in the European Union (2004) and 2) the global financial and economic crisis (2008/2009). On the basis of our analysis we have found that merchandise trade between the parties has been compatible with general EU-Japan trends: V4 imports from Japan in the analyzed timeframe was rather stable, with a very low growth rate, while exports of V4 countries to Japan have expanded significantly (mostly in relative values). We have also concluded that the importance of Japan as a merchandise trade partner for V4 countries has eroded. This negative trend in relative trade importance applies also to V4 exports to Japan where an upward trend was recorded in nominal values. In general conclusions we have stressed that the value of V4 merchandises sold at the Japanese market does not reflect the trade and economic potential of the parties.

February 15, 2021

The Impact of Social Motivations on Word-of-Mouth Generation by Japanese Consumers

The authors examine the role of three social motivations (social bonding, social comparison, and the sharing of social norm information) in generating word-of-mouth (WOM) among consumers in a culture (Japan) where many consumers have an interdependent construal of self. Based on existing discussions of East Asian cultures in general and Japanese culture in particular, the authors hypothesized that these social motivations would be positively associated with the generation of WOM among Japanese consumers. To test these hypotheses, the authors surveyed 618 Japanese mothers who had purchased products designed to protect the health, safety, or well-being of their children. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings indicate that, among Japanese consumers, the generation of both positive and negative word-of-mouth is a function of the desire to share social information. In addition, positive WOM is positively related to the desire for social comparison, while negative WOM is positively related to the desire for social bonding. Finally, the desire for social bonding has positive and significant indirect relationships with both positive and negative WOM.

February 15, 2021

Organizational Ambidexterity: What Does it Mean? How is it Actualized?

This paper, based on a longitudinal case study, explicates through what kinds of learning process the organizational ambidexterity is actually realized. We assume the two types of learning process called explorative learning and exploitative learning drawn from March’s original work and define the ambidexterity as the balance of two learning modes (March 1991). In March’s characterization, exploration involves search, variation, risk-taking, experimentation, play, flexibility, discovery and innovation, whereas exploitation can be defined as refinement, choice, production, efficiency, selection, implementation and execution. This characterization, however, is very ambiguous. To make the definition clearer, we add a dynamic capability view to the ambidexterity research. Teece (2007)’s dynamic capabilities view assumes the explorative learning route comprised of three micro-foundations (sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring). However, the linkage of three micro-foundations may break somewhere by the bias of organizational learning. For that reason, the existence of another learning mechanism, so-called exploitative learning is also drawing attention. Unfortunately, exploitative learning route also suffers from several breakdowns. As a result, every firms need the balancing efforts of exploitative learning and explorative learning as an organizational ambidexterity. We try to identify its concrete actualization process by opening the black box of an ambidexterity mechanism in real setting. We select special research setting, the foreign expansion case of a Japanese international retailer into Chinese market. Our research question is what kind of balancing process does the organizational ambidexterity actually follow? We look at how the two learning processes are activated and balanced, looking at either the combined or equalizing dimensions of ambidexterity construct. We also pay attention to what are the controllable antecedents that make it possible. In conclusion, the theoretical and practical implications are tentatively drawn from this study.

March 2, 2020

Was the Direct Distribution between Mass-Production and -Consumption a Theoretical Consequence of the Distribution Revolution?: Re-Appraisal the Direct Distribution Structure for Shopping Refugees in the Near Future

In this paper, I reappraised the direct distribution structure as a revolutionary theory of commodity distribution. Not only as the theoretical revolution, but also this paper attempts to save shopping regufees as the managerial practice. As a theoretical contribution, the paper reveals the implicit assumptions included in traditional distribution theory in 1960s. The traditional theory assumed transactional efficiency by the principle of minimum total transatiocions. This assumption unintentionally presupposed the existence of retailers. As a result, the traditional theory provided a practical revolution in distribution, but failed to revolutionize the pure theory.

This is the first proof reading version. Please cite it from 明大商学論叢 第102巻第4号.

October 31, 2020

What's Wrong, ZOZO?: Theoretical Interpretation by Distribution Thoery

In this article, I tried to show an example of theoretical interpretation on management practice. In February 6th 2019, Mr. Maezawa, the ex-CEO o ZOZO company, posted one controversial Tweet. This tweet revealed production cost of a suit. It seemed like somehow critique on extra profits of apparel manufactures. Many reviwers replied this Tweet, rather ZOZO earned 30% commisions of retail prices. This result can be interpreted and even forecasted by the distribution theory. The theory told what ZOZO should do at that time.

This is the first proof reading version. Please cite it from 明大商学論叢 第102巻第2号.

October 31, 2020

Book Review,小川進(文)、北村裕花(絵)『はじめてのマーケティング』千倉書房、2014年、1,500円(税別)

In this book reivew, I discussed the roles of graphics in a theoretical book, specifically an elementary text book. Graphics foster an elementary pupile understand concepts easier and quicker. Graphics has million times information than texts. Expression and representation modes influence the efficiency of information transfer.

February 15, 2021

Evolution of Private Label Development: A Japanese Case

This paper discusses on recent trend in private label development in Japan. Reasons for introducing of private label products have been explained as low price with moderate quality by the beginning of 21st century in Japan. However, improvement of quality is one of the persuasive factors which explains recent growth of private label products. In this paper, we will show market share growth which evolves with private label evolution from low price appeal to quality focused, when we traced its evolutionary sequence. Continuous quality improvement of private label product is one of the critical factors which influences consumers’ repeated purchase. Though previous studies indicated that quality improvement positively influenced, there was few report on practices and management of quality improvement in retailers. This paper will explore such quality improvement activities, how that evolved. Recent private label development focused on involvement to upstream, that is, production phase, such as material selections and supply management.

February 29, 2020

Education, Enterprise Capitalism, and Equity Challenges: The Continuing Relevance of the Correspondence Principle in Japan

In this paper, I reappraised the correspondence theory in this paper. Although several education improvements have been done, the social roles of education, specifically elementary education, are still conservative. Cited the PISA resutl study in Japanese, this paper interprets the meaning of such results. And this paper assumes the reason why such result happened. The correspondence principle still works, rather getting harder under current enterprise capitalism structure in Japan.

February 29, 2020

Japan and Critical Marketing Theory: Openning a Window

In this paper, we introduce a status quo on the critical theory in maketing studies in Japan. Japanese marketing scholars traditionally have been good at critical research. Some wrote a paper titled as "A note on critique of xxx (research themes, i.e. service dominant logic; design thinking; virtual team." However, those were not critical theory studies, nor theoretical studies. Compared to those, this paper declares the openning the new generation of critical theory studies on marketing.

February 26, 2020

Movie Review, Sofia Coppla, Lost in Translation (2003)

In this review, we discusse on four types of stances for this movie. This movie, first, has been regarded as a comedy which is caused by cultural differences. As the same time, cultural difference causes two types of attitudes, ironic and positive. Emplying these two dimensions, four types of attitudes to the movie can be organized. The framework contributes to distribute our attitudes to this movie. However, I believe, the movie should be enjoyed as itself without any preoccupation and prejudice. Enjoy it.

January 22, 2019

Business Communication and Trust in Business Relationships from the Perspective of Polish Managers

In this paper we use behavioural approach to trust in search of its relations with communication in business-to-business relationships. We aim to describe communicational behaviours connected with processes of building and destroying trust. First we address to the literature on trust, the review is then followed by the presentation of the results of research we held among 158 sales managers of a group of Polish enterprises in order to propose some final conclusions.

This is not the publication version, still under proof reading. Do not cite before official publication in 明大商学論叢第101巻第3号


January 21, 2019

Book Review,田村正紀『経営事例の物語分析:企業盛衰のダイナミクスをつかむ』白桃書房、2016年、2,600円(税別)

This is the first book which discussed on making a narrative story of business. Compared to an orthodox structural story analysis as Russian formalism, this book strongly emphasizsed on creation, not on ciritique method. Elaborate and detail procedure to complete the narrative story were dicsussed. Many anecdotes were everywhere in the book, and enjoyable. Several impressed episodes have been showed.

July 11, 2018

Polish-Japanese Investment and Trade Relations

We focus historical process on Polish and Japanese investment policy for last several decades.

This is not the publication version, still under proof reading. Do not cite before official publication.

March 14, 2018

Bood Review, 落合康裕『事業承継のジレンマ:後継者の制約と自律のマネジメント』白桃書房、2016年、3456円(税込み)

This book won for several awards. I really undersntand that. This is the book which focused on the difficulty of management position transfer in family business. Even practitioners did not show this transfer system ever. Not only theoretical part, but also intimate field researches themselves are excited as well.

This is not the publication version. Please cite it from 明大商学論叢第100巻第1号.

March 14, 2018

Bood Review, 冨田健司『知識マーケティング』中央経済社、2015年、3456円(税込み)

A seminal work on knowledge management is it. Author coped with the difficulties of knowledge transfer, specifically selling and buying. Knowledge (in this book, it refers to effectiveness of medicine) cannot physically show any effect before activated. Any other special marketing should be usefull in knowledge marketing.

This is not the publication version. Please cite it from 明大商学論叢第100巻第1号.

March 14, 2018

Development of Measurements for Economic Resilience as an Operational Definition on Economic Gardening Concept

In this paper, we focus on measurements of economic resilience. Resilience concpet has been developed in ecology, since these times, it is discussed on many varieties of disciplinies. Here we develop an operational definition for measuring economic resilience level of cities in Japan.

This is not the publication version. Please cite it from forml publication.

January 19, 2018

Empirical Analysis of Skill Development Programs for Municipality Government Officials

Our paper evaluates an annual skill development program, implemented by Osaka Prefectural Government, for municipality government officials and business assistance personnel. Municipality governments in Osaka have been struggling to promote manufacturing and service industries to increase their employment and income.

January 19, 2018

Gaining strategic balance between inimitability and legitimacy in generating innovative business model

This work analyses a case of Japanese construction equipment company as a successful introduction of new business model as servitization process in traditional manufacturing industry.

January 19, 2018

Developing a Cardio Simulator: More Real and Quicker

This paper was presented at The XXVIII ISPIM Innovation Conference – Composing the Innovation Symphony, Austria, Vienna on 18-21 June 2017. The publication is available to ISPIM members at www.ispim.org.