Two decades after Love Canal became the first polluted site on the newly created Superfund list, federal officials announced yesterday that the neighborhood that epitomized environmental horror in the late 1970's was clean enough to be taken off the list. Hundreds of families were evacuated from the working-class Love Canal section of Niagara Falls, N.Y., after deadly chemicals started oozing through the ground into basements and a school, burning children and pets and, according to experts, causing birth defects and miscarriages. The neighborhood had been built on a 19th-century canal where a toxic mix of more than 80 industrial chemicals had been buried.

The removal of Love Canal from the Superfund list will be mostly symbolic. The cleanup at the toxic waste site, the nation's most notorious, took 21 years and cost close to $400 million, but most of the work was completed a few years ago.

Anthony DePALMA
"Love Canal Declared Clean, Ending Toxic Horror"
The New York Times, March 18, 2004

Deliberately blocking thoughts about someone before going to sleep, the researchers found, made it more likely that the person would appear in a dream that night.

In the study, by scientists at Harvard and the University of Texas at San Antonio, college students were asked to choose someone they knew and then either concentrate on or suppress thoughts about that person five minutes before bedtime. Another group of students was told simply to pick a person and then to think about anything at all.

"Not surprisingly, any kind of thinking about something increases the likelihood that it will show up in a dream," said Dr. Daniel M. Wegner, a professor of psychology at Harvard and the lead author of the study. "But trying to suppress something increases the chances even more, indicating that the meanings of our dreams involve things we've tried to sweep under the rug."

The study is being published in the April issue of the journal Psychological Science.

"Dreams Ride on Freud's Royal Road, Study Finds"
The New York Times, March 23, 2004

At a pivotal time in human evolution, around 2.4 million years ago, a muscle gene underwent a disabling alteration, new research has found. And scientists say this may have made all the difference, leading to the enlarged brains of the lineage that evolved into modern humans.

Researchers who made the discovery said this might be the first recognized functional genetic difference between humans and the apes that can be correlated with anatomical changes in the fossil record. The gene mutation, they said, may amount to the beginning of the ancestral triumph of brain over brawn. At the least, they and other scientists said, the mutated gene probably accounts for the more graceful human jaw, in contrast to apes' protruding jaw and facial ridges.

The discovery was made by scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and is being reported today in the journal Nature.

John Noble WILFORD
"Less Jaw, Big Brain: Evolution Milestone Laid to Gene Flaw"
The New York Times, March 25, 2004

One of the few things that gets her ever so wryly ruffled is the public's attitude toward her beloved discipline, chemistry.
"People hear the word `chemical' and they automatically think it's bad,"
she [Dr. Jacqueline K. Barton] said.
"Even my daughter, when she was in kindergarten, came home and said she'd learned that there were too many chemicals in the world. I told her, Elizabeth, we're all chemicals! Everything is made of chemicals!"

Dr. Barton is also skeptical whenever laypeople tell her they "flunked chemistry" in high school.
"Not everybody could possibly have flunked chemistry,"
she said.
"Surely someone somewhere got a B."

For that matter, she said, why do people so readily confess to their complete ignorance of chemistry and other science, even to the point of sounding boastful?
"People are perfectly willing to say to me at a party, I haven't the foggiest idea what you're talking about, which they would never do if we were discussing current events,"
she said.
"Why aren't they embarrassed? Why don't they think, Gee, maybe this is something I ought to know a little bit about?"
Fear is no excuse. For all its daunting reputation, she said:
"Science really isn't that hard. I don't think it's more difficult than anything else."

Natalie ANGIER
"SCIENTIST AT WORK: Constantly in Motion, Like DNA Itself"
The New York Times, March 02, 2004

武士(もののふ)は もののあわれ 知るというは 偽りよ.鬼界ヶ 島に鬼はなく,鬼は都にありけるぞや.」(千鳥)


「あの小僧め,俺を斬る気とみえる.馬鹿ほど怖いものはないなあ.」(高師 直)
















(p.59) …
(p.61)           (「悲劇の第一部」書斎)








高度に抽象的なテーマを分りやすく表現できることが才能なのだが,日本の職 業的学者の書物にはそのようなものは少ない.頭が悪いからということではな く,民主的な基盤が左翼系学者にすら無いからであろう.というよりは,簡単 なことを難解な用語を用い,読み難い長いセンテンスの表現をした方が,その 種の読者には売れるからという商業的動機によるのではないかと私は思う

勝 瑞 豊

子どもと同じで数学者もまず頻度で考え,あとになってようやく分数やパーセ ンテージ,確率を考えるようになった(ピタゴラスとその弟子たちにとっては, 数とは分数や負の整数ではなくて,正の整数だった.言い伝えによれば,メタ ポンツムのヒッパソスは無理数の存在を証明して,整数比による秩序というピ タゴラス派の世界観を崩したために,船から海に投げ込まれたという).確率 とパーセンテージは歴史的に新しい不確実性の表現なのだ.不確実性の数理が 登場したのは17世紀半ばである.(68頁)

…しかし,残念ながら,実際の医療に関する決定はなかなかこんな理想のよう にはいかない.そもそも,「科学的根拠に基づく医療」という言葉が生まれね ばならなかったということが問題だ.科学的な根拠に基づく物理学を推奨しな ければならない自然科学者の集まりとはどういうものか,考えて見るといい.… 医療業界が──[…]──科学的根拠に基づく医療の実践をためらう理由のひ とつは,多くの医師がいまだに統計をもとにした推論で診断をつけること に困惑を感じていることにある.(115頁)

[米国]医師会会長今日の医学はいまなお,16世紀の教会を 思わせるところがある外科医はほとんどが男性で奇妙な言葉を使い,顧 客である患者は懺悔のあと安心させてもらうわけです.それに,奇妙な衣装を 身につけ,盲腸に儀式的な手術を行う.われわれに必要なのは改革でしょう.(116頁)

[米国]医師会会長:われわれはしっかりした科学的根拠を患 者の頭に入れて,幻想を追放する必要がある.同時に,患者の不安と儀式の必 要性を真剣に受け止めることも必要です.臨床に携わる医師はみんな,多 少はブードゥー教や神秘主義めいたことをやっていますよ.花形の外科医 でもね.患者がそれを期待している.(120頁)

…ところが法廷となるとそうはいかない.学生時代に数学や統計学をできるだ け避けてきた多くの学生が法律家になる.このひとたちは条件付確率,一致確 率,その他の統計的数字にはなじみがない.統計情報を自然頻度で提示するこ とは,裁判関係者が──それに一般市民も──議論に勝ち,妻への暴力と殺人 のあいだのほんとうの関係を見抜くために有効なはずだ.(187頁)

人生の大半を統計や心理学を避けて過ごしてきた多くの学生が法律家になって いる.アメリカの定評のあるロースクール約175のうち,基本統計学や調査方 法の科目を必修にしているのはたった一校しかない.わたしがアメリカでも有 数のロースクールの客員教授だったとき,学生たちの賢明さとレトリックの巧 みさに感動したが,同時に統計学の基本原則にあまりに無知なのに驚いた.批 判的な思考に秀でた学生が,統計的証拠から引き出された結論が正しいか間違っ ているかを判断できないのである.同じく大半の学生は,統計情報を他人に分 かるように伝えることを含め,心理学にも疎かった.だがこの学生たちも,自 分の仕事には統計学と心理学が重要であることに気づく.多くの法律事案が不 確実な証拠に基づいて決定されるからである.嘘発見器,繊維分析,毛髪分析, DNA鑑定,血液型分析,筆蹟鑑定などの技術が提供する証拠は全て不確実で, 評価を必要とする.法廷は専門家証人を呼ぶ傾向があるが,これまで見てきた とおり,法廷が選ぶ専門家当人が混乱した考え方をしているかもしれない. (203−202頁)


人生五十 功無きを愧ず

花木 春過ぎ 夏すでに中ばなり


Among researchers, the combining of new information with conventional wisdom is known as Bayesian analysis, and it has become increasingly popular in recent years. Once controversial, because it muddies supposedly pure scientific data with subjective opinion about which prior research is relevant to a particular study, it has gained adherents as the explosion of computing power has allowed the method's complex formulas to be performed on a basic laptop computer.

"In academia, the Bayesian revolution is on the verge of becoming the majority viewpoint, which would have been unthinkable 10 years ago," said Bradley P. Carlin, a professor of public health at the University of Minnesota and a Bayesian specialist.

In everyday life, of course, people have been using the ideas underlying Bayesian analysis since well before it became the vogue in science labs, or even before Thomas Bayes, an 18th-century British minister and mathematician, formalized the method in a paper that was published two years after he died. When crossing a street, people rely on both what they see and what they remember about the speed of cars on similar roads. When deciding whether to take a sick child to a doctor, parents consider the current symptoms as well as the child's history and their general knowledge of illness.

"The human brain knows about Bayes's rule," said Konrad P. Kording, a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Neurology in London, who conducted the study published in Nature along with Daniel M. Wolpert, a professor at the institute.

The new research stands out because it offers a detailed window into how the Bayesian thought process works, showing the point when uncertainty becomes great enough to give past experience an edge over current observation.

"Subconsciously, Athletes May Play Like Statisticians"
The New York Times, January 21, 2004

In their article, [Prof. Theodore] Eisenberg[, a law professor at Cornell] and his co-author, Geoffrey P. Miller, a New York University law professor, write that if the effects of inflation are taken into account, then from 1993 through 2002, "contrary to popular belief, we find no robust evidence that either recoveries for plaintiffs or fees for their attorneys as a percentage of the class recovery increased."

According to the study, the average settlement over the 10-year period was $100 million in inflation-adjusted 2002 dollars. It rose as high as $274 million in 2000 - a result of four settlements that year for more than $1 billion each - and fell as low as $25 million in 1996. "The mean client recovery has not noticeably increased over the last decade," the professors wrote.

The study also found that "neither the mean nor the median level of fee awards has increased over time." The average fee rose as high as $31 million in 2000, but exceeded $10 million in only two other years. The professors also report that as one might expect, the larger a settlement, the smaller the percentage allocated to legal fees. For the largest 10 percent of settlements, which averaged $929 million, lawyers received an average of 12 percent. For the smallest 10 percent, which averaged $800,000, lawyers received nearly 30 percent. Fees were higher in cases that were more risky and were higher in federal court cases than in state courts.

Jonathan D. GLATER
"Study Disputes View of Costly Surge in Class-Action Suits"
The New York Times, January 14, 2004

… In a nationwide survey of 15,686 students in sixth through 10 grade in public and private schools, Dr. Tonja R. Nansel and colleagues at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development found that children who bullied and their victims were more likely to engage in violent behaviors than those who had never been involved in bullying.

They found that children who bully are at risk for engaging in more serious violent acts, like fighting frequently and carrying weapons.

The victims of bullying were also at risk for violent behavior, with weapons carried by 36 percent of boys and 15 percent of girls who had been bullied in school at least once a week.

At greatest risk were boys and girls who both bullied others and were bullied themselves; they were 16 times as likely as youngsters not engaged in bullying behavior to carry weapons, the researchers reported last April in The Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

"PERSONAL HEALTH: A Bully's Future, From Hard Life to Hard Time"
The New York Times, January 13, 2004

Dr. Felton Earls and his colleagues argue that the most important influence on a neighborhood's crime rate is neighbors' willingness to act, when needed, for one another's benefit, and particularly for the benefit of one another's children. And they present compelling evidence to back up their argument.

His study, based in Chicago, has challenged an immensely popular competing theory about the roots of crime. "Broken windows," as it is known, holds that physical and social disorder in a neighborhood lead to increased crime, that if one broken window or aggressive squeegee man is allowed to remain in a neighborhood, bigger acts of disorderly behavior will follow.

This theory has been one of the most important in criminology. It was first proposed in an article published 20 years ago in The Atlantic Monthly, written by Dr. James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. The theory provided the intellectual foundation for a crackdown on "quality of life" crimes in New York City under Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani.

In a landmark 1997 paper that he wrote with colleagues in the journal Science, and in a subsequent study in The American Journal of Sociology, Dr. Earls reported that most major crimes were linked not to "broken windows" but to two other neighborhood variables: concentrated poverty and what he calls, with an unfortunate instinct for the dry and off-putting language of social science, collective efficacy.

"If you got a crew to clean up the mess," Dr. Earls said, "it would last for two weeks and go back to where it was. The point of intervention is not to clean up the neighborhood, but to work on its collective efficacy. If you organized a community meeting in a local church or school, it's a chance for people to meet and solve problems.

"SCIENTIST AT WORK: On Crime as Science (a Neighbor at a Time)"
The New York Times, January 06, 2004

昭和21年の憲法明治22年の憲法である. 世には文章の何たるかを知らない 者がゐるらしく,現行憲法を悪文としりぞけ,それにひきかへ明治憲法は大し た名文だ,すごいすごい,などと褒めそやしていつぱし文学的なつもりでゐる けれど,わたしに言はせればふざけちやいけない.たしかに現行憲法は名文で はないが,しかしあれだつて明治憲法にくらべれば文章として遥かに優れてゐ るのである.それは筆者の言はんとするところを表現してずいぶん明確であり, 曖昧さが乏しい.誤解の余地がすくない.この明晰といふ性格が文章一般の根 本条件であることはすでに述べたとほりだが,法律の文章となればなほさらだ らう.法律がどうとも取れるあやふやな口のきき方をしたのでは,あぶなつか しくて仕方がないのだ.そしてその曖昧なものの言ひ方の大将格が明治憲法で, これは明晰さなどきれいさぱり度外視した劣弱な文章で書かれてゐる.あんな ものを名文呼ばはりする者は,土台,文章を云々する柄ではないのだ. (pp.71-72)

…これは憲法前文がまあそれなりに伝達性・論理性を持ってゐることの證拠に ほかならない.すなはち,感心しない文章であることは同意してもいいし,同 意するしかないけれど,同時に,いちおう論理的でありいちおう伝達の機能を 備へてゐることもまた認めなければ片手落ちになるだらう.それは文章の最低 の条件にからうじてかなつてゐるのである.そして明治憲法の場合,現行憲法 の前文に当るものが告文や発布勅諭であると見立てて差支へないならば,その 告文や勅諭が荘厳にしてチンプンカンプン,勿体ぶつてゐて瞹昧模糊,何を言 つてゐるのやらさつぱり見当もつかないことは,わざわざここに引用するまで もない.すなはちそれは虚飾に身をやつしながら,しかし文章基本の機能をあ つさり忘れ果てているさながら数年風呂にはいるのを怠つて白粉を塗りたく つてゐるやうなもので,醜悪きはまりない.かうなれば現行憲法前文 のほうが 数等ましなことは言ふまでもなからう.それはすくなくともときたま風呂には いつて,しかしかはいさうに紅白粉には手が届かない様子なのである. (p.74)


「明治22年春,憲法發布せらるる,全國の民歡呼湧くが如し.先生嘆じて曰く, 吾人賜與せらるるの憲法果して如何の物乎,玉耶將た瓦耶,未だ其實を見るに 及ばずして,先ず其名に酔ふ,我國民の愚にして狂なる,何ぞ如此くなるやと. 憲法の全文到達するに及んで,先生通讀一遍唯だ苦笑する耳.」 (pp.95-96)


「やまとうたは ひとのこゝろをたねとして よろつのことの葉とそ なれりける 世中にある人ことわさしけきものなれは 心におもふことを 見るものきくものにつけて いひいたせるなり 花になくうくひす みつにすむかはつのこゑをきけは いきとしいけるもの いつれかうたをよまさりける ちからをもいれすして あめつちをうこかし めに見えぬ鬼神をも あはれとおもはせ おとこ女のなかをも やはらけ たけきもののふのこゝろをも なくさむるは哥なり(pp.103-104)

たとへばここに,大内兵衛の『法律学について』の一節がある. 彼は大学の法学部出身者の見識と覚悟が低いことを罵つてから言ふ.

「私は,こういった法律学徒の人生観・世界観なるものについて,イ ヤという ほどその社会的意義を見せつけられたのは,昭和七,八年より一〇年前後にか けて起こった美濃部博士事件のいわゆる天皇機関説問題である と思っている.

 美濃部博士の学説といえば,大正八年より昭和一〇年までの日本における, 政府公認の学説である.という意味は,この十五年間に官吏となっ たほどの人物は,十中八九あの先生の憲法の本を読み,あの解釈に従って官吏 となったのである.そしてまた,その上司はそれを承知して,そうい う官吏を任用していたのである.これは行政官だけのことではない. 司法官も弁護士も同様である.しかるに,いったん,それが貴族院の 一派の人々,政治界の不良の一味学会の暴力団によって 問題とされたとき,すべての法学界,とくにそれに直接した人々がどういう態 度をとったであろう.上は貴族院議員,衆議院議員,検事予審判事,検事 長,検事総長等々より,下は警視総監,警視,巡査にいたるまで,彼らのうち 一人も,みずから立って美濃部博士の学説が正当な学説であるというものがな かった.いいかえれば,自分の学説もまたそれであり,自分は自分 の地位をかけても自分の学説を守るというものがなかった.もう一度いいかえ れば,美濃部先生の学説はその信奉者たる議員,官吏のうちにさえ,その真実 の基礎をもたぬものであった.だからこそ,彼らは,上から要求されれば自己 の学説をすてて反対のことをやったのである.そしてそれについて自己の責任 を感じなかったのである.何ともバカらしい道徳ではないか.何ともタワイの ない学問ではないかそんなことから,私はかたく信じている,日本の法学は 人物の養成においてこの程度のことしかなしえなかったのであると.同時に, そういう学問ならば,いっそないほうがよいのではないか.そのほうが害が少 ない.」


単刀直入に本論からはじめよう.その最上の例としては,明治三十七年二月十 四日,すなはち日露開戦の直後,幸徳秋水平民新聞に掲げた 『兵士を送る』(全文)を引くとしよう.


 諸君今や人を殺さんが爲めに行く,否ざれば即ち人に殺されんが爲めに行 く, 吾人は知る,是れ實に諸君の希ふ所にあらざることを,然れども兵士とし ての諸君は,單に一個の自動機械也,憐れむ可し諸君は思想の自由を有せざる 也,躰躯の自由を有せざる也諸君の行くは諸君の罪に非ざる也, 英靈なる人生を強て,自動機械と為せる現時の社會制度の罪也,吾人 諸君と不幸にして此惡制度の下に生るるを如何せん,行矣,吾人今や諸君の行 を止むるに由なし.嗚呼従軍の兵士,諸君の田畝は荒れん,諸君の業務は廢せ られん,諸君の老親は獨り門に倚り,諸君の妻兒は空しく飢に泣く,而して諸 君の生還は元より期す可からざる也,而も諸君は行かざる可からず,行矣, 行て諸君の職分とする所を盡せ,一個の機械となって動け,然れども露國 の兵士も又人の子也,人の夫也,人の父也,諸君の同胞なる人類也,之を思ふ て慎んで彼らに對して殘暴の行あること勿れ

 嗚呼吾人今や諸君の行を止むるに由なし,吾人の爲し得る所は,唯諸君 の子孫をして再び此惨事に會する無らしめんが爲に,今の惡制度廢止に盡力せ んのみ,諸君が朔北の野に奮進するが如く,吾人も亦惡制度廢止の戦場に 向つて奮進せん,諸君若し死せば諸君の子孫と共に爲さん,諸君生還せば諸君 と與に爲さん.」





ここで例の,日本語の論理性といふ問題に逢着する.しかしこれは, 漠然たる日本語一般漠然たる論理性一般を頭に置いていくら 考へこんだつて,大した収穫は得られないと思ふ.言語である以上,日本 語がいちおう論理的なのは当り前で,これはどこの国のどの時代の言語だつて 変らない.たとへ未開野蛮の国の土語だつて,論理的な仕掛けになつてゐなけ れば,話しかけられた相手が意向を察することがむづかしくて,焼畑農業も首 まつりもできないはずだ.大事なのは,われわれ現代日本人が駆使しなけ ればならないのはどういふ種類の論理性かといふこと,そして,それ に即応する力が現代日本語に備はつてゐるかどうかというふことである. (pp.349-350)

文章と論理といふことに注目するとき単数・複数の別などよりずつと 根本的なものとして語彙の問題がある.西洋の場合,いちばん 羨しいのは,思想の言語と生活の言語とがなだらかに結びついてゐて断絶 がないことだ.英語で言へば,"idea"は「心に浮かぶこと」や 「思ひつき」といふ低い次元から,「認識」や「観念」や「思想」といふ高い 次元に至るまで,ごく自然につづいてゐる包括的な言葉である.つまり, 裏長屋の婆さんのおしやべりにも,哲学者のおしやべりにも出て来るだらう .いや,哲学者が専門的な問題を論じて,同業の友人にあてて書く手紙に も,彼が近所の子供を相手に言ふ冗談にも,使はれるだらう.これに反し て,われわれの「観念」がただ高級な思索や勿体ぶつた演説のときだけ用ゐら れるむづかしい言葉であることは,改めて説明するまでもない.そしてこ のへんの事情は,「憲法」だつて,「政策」だつて,「状 況」だつて変らないので,つまりわれわれの使ふちよつと四角四面な 言葉は,みな生活感覚の裏打ちを欠いてゐる.これでは文章が現実か ら遊離しがちなのは当り前で,かうなれば,その文章の述べる理屈が 空転し,論理性を失ひがちなのは,ほとんど必然の結果だらう.われ われがものを考へることができるのは,常に,現実的な生活と関連のある場所 においてなのである.(pp.352-353)

丸 谷 才 一

秀才少年には公立小学校の授業はつまらなかった.テストは簡単で,すぐにで きてしまう.教科書もこっそりと,みんなより先を読んでいた.
米国の学園都市ボストンを流れるチャールズ川のほとりで,H・H さん(21)は苦笑いした.


勉強ができる人もいれば,そうでない人もいる.それを画一的に教 えれば,ほころびが生じる
「必要なのは興味のある分野を伸ばす教育.教える量を減らすことに重きを置 いても考える力は身に付きません」

「ゆとり無用 秀才は急ぐ」

初雪や 綺麗に笹の 五六枚(正岡子規)


食ヘヌニ困ルト仰セアラバ 小生衰ヘタリト雖 貴兄ニ半椀ノ飯ヲ分タン


高僧は商船にのり,貿易顧問をかねて明へ渡った.売僧といわれる商僧のはし りである.高僧は明国にゆくと青楼や妓院を遊歴した.帰国すれば花柳の通人 だ.のちのことだが,応仁の乱後,京都に設けられた遊里の構図と廓規則なる ものは,帰朝の高僧らの助言でできたという.つまり,僧たちは,口では高邁 な祖師語録を唱じ,無功徳三昧の生活を説きながら,技娼街の建設に力を貸し ていたのである.…ふと,五百年後の現代の鎌倉五山,京都五山の一部に,仏 像をみせ,庭園をみせ,掛軸をみせて金銭を取得する観光僧があふれ,あるい はまた,公害産業数万社員の錬成道場師家となり,給金をもらい,あるいはま た,高層住宅を寺内に建て,茶道,華道,音楽教室を経営する売僧の氾濫と符 合する.(32)


有漏地より 無漏地へ帰る一休み
 雨ふらば降れ 風ふかば吹け



人間の自然を否定して何処に人生があるか.煩悩を罪悪視して何処に人間があ るか.私はそううけとる.(209)

「計ラズモ万歳期セシ花ノ都モ今何ンゾ狐狼ノ伏土トナラントハ,適々残ル東 寺北野サヘ灰土トナルヲ,古ニモ治乱興廃ノナラヒアリトイヘドモ,応仁ノ一 変は仏法王法トモニ破滅シ,諸家悉ク絶エハテヌルヲ感嘆ニタヘズ,飯尾六右 衛門一首ノ歌ヲ詠ジケル.汝ヤシル 都ハ野辺ノ 夕雲雀 アガルヲ見テモ  落ツルナミダハ」(227)

食えない人びとは,打ち続く天災のなかを,どうして生きたか.犬を殺し牛を 殺し,馬を殺して食った.皮肉なことに,仏法は殺生戒をいい,生物を殺して 生きねばならぬ貧窮民を蔑視した.(229)

もとより不立文字の宗旨が文芸にあるのは矛盾している.純粋禅の修行は不徹 底化してゆくはずである.生活の繁栄が,本来無一物を実践する禅に矛盾して 当然だが,…(243)

世の中に 秋風立ちぬ 花すゝき まねかはゆかん 野辺も山辺も(268)


後醍醐天皇が大徳寺の建立を思いたたれて,いよいよ計画が成った時,大応を 招いて,住職に誰をするべきか,と問われた時,大応は,言下に
「鴨河原にいるときいています.おそらく,あのたくさんの乞食では,さがす のにひと苦労でしょう」.
天皇はただちに使者をたてる.だが,大応のいったとおり大燈は見つからない. 使者は一計を案じて,大燈の好きだったマクワ瓜をザルに入れて河原におりた ら,

枕上の梅花 花信の心
満口の清香 清浅の水
黄昏の月色 新吟を奈

身は死ねども魂は死なぬは,大なる誤りなり.悟る人の言葉には,身も種も 一つに死ぬるといふなり.仏といふも虚空の事なり」(415)

水上 勉

In scores of brain studies, this part of the insula is activated when we recall sadness or anger, anticipate pain, feel panic or become sexually aroused or have an emotional response to music. It lights up when people view or imitate emotional expressions in others. And in one study it showed activity when people experienced the pain of being socially excluded.

A number of experiments show that the anterior insula is the main area that is active when people experience self-awareness, the realization that "it is my body that is moving," my physical self moving through time.

Spindle cells are not present at birth. They appear around age 4 months and gradually increase during the second and third year of life, the same time that guilt and embarrassment appear. As children develop a sense of moral judgment, the frontal lobes and spindle cell system continue to expand.

No neuroscientist would make a leap to say that this is where the conscience or sense of free will is lodged. But if one imagined a single location for these fundamental aspects of human nature, this would be the place.

"Humanity? Maybe It's in the Wiring"
The New York Times, December 09, 2003

Men and women, playing off each other, use long- and short-term thinking, and sometimes a mixture, in picking partners, Dr. Kruger said. Women recognize the kind of men who pursue short-term affairs, he said. They fit the description of George Staunton in Scott's "The Heart of Midlothian," who is handsome, daring and "unconstrained," and who displays "the abrupt demeanor, the occasionally harsh, yet studiously subdued tone of voice." Such dark heroes in Romantic literature, Dr. Kruger said, are typically single and promiscuous.

The title character of "Waverley" illustrates the dad. Waverley is in the army but shows little interest in adventure. One friend says of him, "I will tell you where he will be at home and in his place -- in the quiet circle of domestic happiness, lettered indolence and elegant enjoyments of his family's estate." These proper heroes are typically kind and altruistic and prone to tender emotions, like love and melancholy.

Cad and dad strategies are both adaptive, from an evolutionary perspective, Dr. Kruger said. The cad approach enables a man to father many children, while the dad approach ensures the children a man has will thrive.

Women get an obvious payoff from pursuing a long-term relationship: help in rearing children. But they also benefit from brief flings, said Patricia Draper, a professor of anthropology at the University of Nebraska who in the 1980's was among the early scientists to describe the cad-dad split. Women may not be as free as men to opt out of their parental duties, but they still can have more than one sexual partner, Ms. Draper said, and that allows them to mix genes with sexually appealing cads.

"For a Good Time, Well, Don't Call Dad"
The New York Times, December 2, 2003

A major surprise has been that chimps turn out to live in territories whose borders are aggressively defended by roving parties of males. Jane Goodall, who pioneered long-term studies of chimps at Gombe, at first believed she was watching a single peaceful community. But as researchers started to follow animals throughout the day and watch their interaction with others, they found that groups of male chimps went out on border patrols, ready to attack and kill the males of neighboring communities.

The males' operational strategy seems to be to defend a territory as large as possible so as to improve the community's food supply, which is principally fruit, and thereby their reproductive success. Dr. Anne Pusey of the University of Minnesota has found that the larger the female chimp's home feeding area, the shorter the interval between births.

In two known cases, a chimp community has wiped out all of a neighbor's males. Though the females may be absorbed into the victors' community, the basic goal seems to be getting rid of a rival rather than capturing females, since male chimps often attack strange females.

Within a community, there is a male hierarchy that is subject to what primatologists euphemistically call elections. Alpha males can lose elections when other males form alliances against them. Losing an election is a bad idea. The deposed male sometimes ends up with personal pieces torn off him and is left to die of his wounds.

Very few other species live in male-kin-bonded communities with female dispersal. And only two practice lethal raids into neighbors' territory to kill off vulnerable enemies. "This suite of behaviors in known only among chimpanzees and humans," Dr. Wrangham and Dale Peterson write in their book "Demonic Males."

Nicholas WADE
"A Course in Evolution, Taught by Chimps"
The New York Times, November 25, 2003


 従来の大学入試試験よりも,知能指数(IQ)テストのほうが,学生の実力 判断に有効とする調査報告が英国で発表された.2003年12月10日付の英紙 インデペンデント(電子版)が報じた.




For example, why does one identical twin develop schizophrenia and not the other? Why do certain disease genes seem to affect or "penetrate" some people more than others? Why do complex diseases like autism turn up in more boys than girls?

For answers, epigeneticists are looking at biological mechanisms other than mutation that affect how genes function. One, called methylation, acts like a gas pedal or brake. It can turn gene expression up or down, on or off, depending on how much of it is around and what part of the genetic machinery it affects.

During methylation, a quartet of atoms called a methyl group attaches to a gene at a specific point and induces changes in the way the gene is expressed.

The process often inactivates genes not needed by a cell. The genes on one of the two X chromosomes in each female cell are silenced by methylation.

Methyl groups and other small molecules may sometimes attach to certain spots on chromosomes, helping to relax tightly coiled strands of DNA so that genes can be expressed.

Sometimes the coils are made tighter so that active genes are inactivated.

Methyl groups also inactivate remnants of past viral infections, called transposons. Forty percent of the human genome is made up of parasitic transposons.

Finally, methyl groups play a critical role in controlling genes involved in prenatal and postnatal development, including some 80 genes inherited from only one parent. Because these so-called imprinted genes must be methylated to function, they are vulnerable to diet and other environmental factors.

When a sperm and egg meet to form an embryo, each has a different pattern of methylated genes. The patterns are not passed on as genes are, but in a chemical battle of the sexes some of the egg and sperm patterns do seem to be inherited. In general, the egg seems to have the upper hand.

"We're compounds, mosaics of epigenetic patterns and gene sequences," said Dr. Arthur Beaudet, chairman of the molecular and human genetics department at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. While DNA sequences are commonly compared to a text of written letters, he said, epigenetics is like the formatting in a word processing program.

Though the primary letters do not vary, the font can be large or small, Times Roman or Arial, italicized, bold, upper case, lower case, underlined or shadowed. They can be any color of the rainbow.

Methylation is nature's way of allowing environmental factors to tweak gene expression without making permanent mutations, Dr. Jirtle said.

Fleeting exposure to anything that influences methylation patterns during development can change the animal or person for a lifetime. Methyl groups are entirely derived from the foods people eat. And the effect may be good or bad. Maternal diet during pregnancy is consequently very important, but in ways that are not yet fully understood.

"A Pregnant Mother's Diet May Turn the Genes Around"
The New York Times, October 07, 2003

The Maya, once thought to be a peaceful culture ruled by priests more devoted to calendars than hostilities, have now been found to have had plenty of blood on their hands. On Tahiti, where the people were considered avatars of Rousseau's Noble Savage, war was frequently brutal and merciless. Nearly all premodern societies, some scholars find, often decimated their numbers in violent warfare.

"People have finally realized that scholars and others have been denying reality," Dr. Steven A. LeBlanc, director of collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, said last week. "War is universal and goes back deep into human history."

"From Hydra Venom to Anthrax Myth"
The New York Times, October 07, 2003

Mr. Fallows, the author of the lead article, "The New College Chaos," writes that while a "more open market for college admissions" is fairer than the days when "Exeter's headmaster could earmark a few dozen of each year's seniors for admission to Harvard," other changes "undermine what had been fundamental ideals and values."

That is a message that many admissions officers and guidance counselors have tried to get out. The challenges that Mr. Fallows faces in broadcasting the same notion through his own megaphone were evident at the admissions conference in Long Beach.

When [Mr. Fallows] held up the cover of The Atlantic, and described it as its first annual college issue, at a panel attended by several hundred admissions professionals [at the admissions conference in Long Beach], he was met by what he himself acknowledged to the crowd was "a collective moan."

And yet, he fared better than Robert Morse of U.S. News. When Mr. Morse introduced himself at a panel the day before as "the one in charge of doing the rankings at U.S. News," he was greeted with hisses and boos.

"A New College Ranking System, Wanted or Not"
The New York Times, October 08, 2003

This year's prize recognizes even earlier theoretical work.
Without knowing the behavior of electrons and atoms in a superconductor, Dr. Ginzburg, along with Dr. Lev Landau, another Russian physicist, devised a set of equations in 1950 that describe the behavior of a superconductor near the temperature at which electrical resistance falls to zero. Those Ginzburg-Landau equations correctly predicted a superconductor's tolerance to magnetic fields and its capacity for electrical current.

Dr. Vladimir Kogan, a physicist at Ames Laboratory in Iowa, described the equation as "a brilliant tour de force guess."

Kenneth CHANG
"Russian and 2 Americans Win Nobel Prize Physics Honors"
The New York Times, October 08, 2003

日本の知識人には,演歌を低俗だと退けたり,演歌に感心するのを恥ずか しいと思ったりする人がいる.一方,日本の大衆は演歌が 好きで,美空ひばりさんが特権的に優れていることを知っている両者の間 に深い溝がある
ところが美空ひばりを聴けない日本人の知識人が,インドネシアのガムラン音 楽なら好んで聞く.エキゾチズムだと受け入れられるためだ.日本情緒は受け 入れにくいのに,異国情緒だと喜ぶ.明治以降,急速に近代化を進めた日本だ が,その矛盾は一部の知識人のこんな感性に表れている.(p.74)

いわゆる詩人と呼ばれる人々はみな,どこかで自分を特別な人間と思っている ところがある.他には能力がないから仕方なく詩人をやっているという場合も 含まれるだろうが,そういう何らかの自己規定をしているものだ.(p.92)

吉本 隆明
『現代日本の詩歌 』

あなたはヘビースモーカーですね.健康に良くないとわかっていながら 平気で吸っている.そのような意志の弱い人間に社長が務まるでしょうか」.

あまりにぶしつけな態度に腹が立った.言ってることは筋が通っている. それがよけいしゃくにさわる.何事も最初が肝心だ.ここは社長としてふ さわしいところを見せる必要がある.最後の一服を心ゆくまで味わい,手持ち のホープをすべて処分した.おかげで,この年まで丈夫な体を保つことが できた


井植 敏

... Comfort foods like chocolate cake and ice cream literally blunt the body's response to chronic stress, scientists reported last week.

The finding, published in the online edition of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, confirms what many people know firsthand. Eating calorie-rich food seems to calm the nerves, but eating too much can lead to obesity, depression and more stress.

This is the first time it has been shown that the tendency to overeat in the face of chronic stress is biologically driven, said Dr. Norman Pecoraro, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California at San Francisco who helped carry out the research in rats. What is true for stressed-out rats, he said, is also true for humans.

In fact, "if you are overly stressed, it's probably a good idea to overeat, at least in the short run," Dr. Pecoraro said. "But if you develop a thick tire of fat around your abdomen, you need to figure out a way to reduce your stress or you'll be inviting all sorts of chronic health problems."

"Comfort Foods Switch Off Stress, Scientists Find"
The New York Times, September 16, 2003

Often saddled with huge debts taken on to pay for their legal educations, more and more law school graduates are finding it hard to work in low-paying positions as public defenders, legal aid lawyers and -- notwithstanding the popularity of "Law and Order" -- prosecutors.

Law students, the study found, are leaving school with an average debt of $77,300, more than twice the sum they borrowed 10 years ago. Since 1985, tuition at law schools has tripled and in some cases quadrupled. In the same period, public interest salaries have not even doubled.

The story is harsher if inflation is taken into account. According to the National Association for Law Placement, the earnings of lawyers in private practice have risen 70 percent since 1985. Starting lawyers at many big New York firms now earn $125,000 a year.

The starting figures for public interest lawyers have increased 12.5 percent and for government lawyers 3.5 percent.

In some cases, undergraduate debt contributes to law graduates' problems. According to the College Board, tuition at four-year institutions has increased 159 percent in 15 years, to $18,273 from $7,048 at private colleges, and to $4,081 from $1,485 at public colleges.

At law schools, tuition rose 171 percent, to $24,193 from $8,911 at private schools, and 223 percent, to $18,146 from $5,616 at public schools, and students have taken out more loans as a result.

Student debt seems to make it harder to recruit nonwhite lawyers in particular, Mr. Morgan of DeKalb County said. "They will have not only the largest law school loans," he said, "but also undergraduate loans."

Jonathan D. GLATER
"High Tuition Debts and Low Pay Drain Public Interest Law"
The New York Times, September 12, 2003

What she found was a view of nature, expressed in writing and photographs, that did not include people. And that, she wrote, is how Americans have come to think of the natural world. There is a small problem with this view. When white Americans first encountered Yosemite, it was a well-peopled landscape. It took soldiers to un-people it.

The Yosemite Valley and the area near Lake Tenaya were home to the Ahwahneechee Indians. But the gold rush was on, the future beckoned, and Indians did not fit in.

In 1851, the Mariposa brigade drove them away, killing some and relocating the rest. In an act that Ms. Solnit finds astonishing, the soldiers named the lake after the chief at the very moment they were removing him from the land. They informed him of the name change as a kind of honor.

"Yosemite and the Invention of Wilderness"
The New York Times, September 02, 2003

In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that psychology can indeed affect biology. Studies have found, for example, that people who suffer from depression are at higher risk for heart disease and other illnesses. Other research has shown that wounds take longer to heal in women who care for patients with Alzheimer's disease than in other women who are not similarly stressed. And people under stress have been found to be more susceptible to colds and flu, and to have more severe symptoms after they fall ill.

Now a new study adds another piece to the puzzle. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin are reporting today that the activation of brain regions associated with negative emotions appears to weaken people's immune response to a flu vaccine.

"Power of Positive Thinking May Have a Health Benefit, Study Says"
The New York Times, September 02, 2003

Biologists have found a class of chemicals that they hope will make people live longer by activating an ancient survival reflex. One chemical, a natural substance known as resveratrol, is found in red wines, particularly those made in cooler climates like that of New York State.

The finding could help explain the so-called French paradox -- the fact that the French consume fatty foods considered threatening to the heart but live as long as anyone else.

Nicholas WADE
"Study Spurs Hope of Finding Way to Increase Human Life"
The New York Times, August 25, 2003

The most improbable item in science fiction movies is not the hardware -- the faster-than-light travel, the tractor beams, the levitation -- but the people. Strangely, they always look and behave just like us. Yet the one safe prediction about the far future is that humans will be a lot further along in their evolution.

Nicholas WADE
"CAN IT BE?: The End of Evolution?"
The New York Times, August 24, 2003

Dr. Mark Pagel of the University of Reading in England and Dr. Walter Bodmer of the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford have proposed a different solution to the mystery and their idea, if true, goes far toward explaining contemporary attitudes about hirsuteness. Humans lost their body hair, they say, to free themselves of external parasites that infest fur -- blood-sucking lice, fleas and ticks and the diseases they spread.

Once hairlessness had evolved through natural selection, Dr. Pagel and Dr. Bodmer suggest, it then became subject to sexual selection, the development of features in one sex that appeal to the other. Among the newly furless humans, bare skin would have served, like the peacock's tail, as a signal of fitness. The pains women take to keep their bodies free of hair -- joined now by some men -- may be no mere fashion statement but the latest echo of an ancient instinct. Dr. Pagel's and Dr. Bodmer's article appeared in a recent issue of The Proceedings of the Royal Society.

Nicholas WADE
"Why Humans and Their Fur Parted Ways"
The New York Times, August 19, 2003

Q. More than 100 years ago, Charles Darwin proposed that human facial expressions are universal. Anthropologists like Margaret Mead thought the opposite. What do you think?
A. Initially, back in 1965, I thought Margaret Mead was probably right. But I decided to get the evidence to settle the argument. I showed pictures of facial expressions to people in the U.S., Japan, Argentina, Chile and Brazil and found that they judged the expressions in the same way. But this was not conclusive because all these people could have learned the meaning of expressions by watching Charlie Chaplin and John Wayne.
I needed visually isolated people unexposed to the modern world and the media. I found them in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. They not only judged the expressions in the same way, but their posed expressions, which I recorded with a movie camera, were readily understandable to people in the West.

Q. One of your most fascinating findings is that if a person merely arranges his face into a certain expression, he will actually feel the corresponding emotion. In other words, emotions work from the outside in as well as the inside out. Is happiness really as simple as putting on a happy face?
A. In a very limited way, yes. The trick with happiness is that while everybody can smile, most people can't move one crucial muscle around the eyes that must be moved to generate the physiology of happiness. With anger or disgust, though, everybody can make the right facial movements and turn on the physical sensations of those emotions.

"A CONVERSATION WITH PAUL EKMAN: The 43 Facial Muscles That Reveal"
The New York Times, August 05, 2003

In fact, few human behaviors are viewed as paradoxically as lying. We teach our children that it is wrong, yet we lie every day in the name of civility. We deem those who lie too often or extensively as untrustworthy, while we may call those who lie too little guileless. And though we routinely expect marketers and politicians to lie, we spare them no end of moral outrage when they do.

Richard A. FRIEDMAN, M.D.
"BEHAVIOR: Truth About Lies: They Tell a Lot About a Liar"
The New York Times, August 05, 2003

「かわいい女性といるときは1時間が1分に思える.しかし,熱いストーブの上 に1分間座らされたら何時間にも思える.これが相対性だ」 (アルバート・アインシュタイン)

私たちがどんなことをしているかがわかっていたら,研究とは呼べない」 (アルバート・アインシュタイン)

「無線電信を理解するのは難しくない.電話は非常に胴の長い猫のようなもの だ.ニューヨークでシッポを引っ張れば,ロサンゼルスでニャーと鳴く.無線 も同じで,ただ猫がいないだけだ」 (アルバート・アインシュタイン)


いわく活性化,自由化,個性化.この手の通り一遍の美名を掲げた改革は,こ れまでほとんどが無残な「改悪」に終わっている.典型的な例が,同じ文科省 (旧文部省)が推進してきた教育改革だろう.ゆとりと個性化をうたったあげ くの学力低下と不登校,中退の増加である.(p.33)

塩谷 喜雄

…ルイーズ・ブラウンは…1978年7月25日に誕生した世界初の"試験管ベビー" だ.

今日までに体外受精で誕生した子供の数は世界中で10万人を数える.今となっ ては,体外受精に対する恐怖心や憶測がばかばかしく思えるかもしれない.し かし,体外受精に関して言われてきたのとまったく同様の懸念の声が,今ヒト クローンについて再びわき起こっている

体外受精と同様にクローンも奇妙な試みではなく,日常茶飯事と見られるよう になるのだろうか.そして,ヒトクローンや胚の遺伝子操作が,いつか試験管 ベビー誕生と同じく一般化するのだろうか.…

…シカゴ大学教授の生物学者カス(Leon Kass)….もし社会が体外受精を受け 入れ,これを継続するならば,人間らしさや人間の存在意義,性の存在価値, 私たちと祖先や子孫との関係性といった重大な事柄が脅かされることになる─ ─彼はルイーズ・ブラウンの誕生直後にそう書いている.(p.25)

もちろん,カスの懸念に反して,体外受精は奇妙なものを生み出すような結果 にはならなかったし,核家族化にも影響を及ぼさなかった.(p.26)


しかし鉄舟は「生きるべきときに生き,死すべきときに死す,これ を全生という」と答えたのです.(p.7)

後日,西郷は「山岡鉄舟は,金もいらぬ,名もいらぬ,命 もいらぬ男である.鉄舟のような人間を一人持っていただけでも,徳川家 はさすがに偉いものだ」 と語ったそうです.(p.8)

役者は体をなくしてはじめて名人という,噺家は舌をなくしてはじめて名 人という.これが円朝の悟りです.そこで円朝の戒名は「無舌 居士」.

閻王に 舌を抜かれて 是からは
   心のままに 偽も云はるる

陸奥宗光は,「大臣の代わりなどいくらもいるが,円朝はお前一人 しかいない」などと上座に呼んだとか.(p.19)

仰 木ひろみ・森ま ゆみ・山崎範 子

では,学生側から見てLS[法科大 学院]はどう映るのか.

「メリットねぇ.人に言える身分になるだけかな.実態は司法浪人と変わらな いんじゃないですか」(p.37)

かつて自 民党司法制度調査会でLSに慎重な姿勢を示したH・Y衆院 議員はこう指摘する.

「国際競争力のある法曹を大量にいち早く育てるのが急務のはずです.それな にのLSは学費の面で最初から社会人を排除してしまっている.そもそも法曹 の質を高めるには,合格者を増やして弁護士を食えなくさせるのが一番.極端 に言えば,博士号さえあれば何も六法全部の勉強しなくても,一定のリーガル な知識だけで資格を与える手法もある.能力がない者は自然と淘汰されるわけ ですからね」(p.37)


さらに,問題なのが「天下り」だ.法人化後は各大学に2〜8人の理事が置か れるほか,文科省の任命する「監事」が各大学に2人ずつ配置される.文科省 が各大学に示した資料によると,理事は一人当たり年間約1730万〜1920万円, 監事は約1370万〜1520万円が「人件費」として定められている.ちなみに理事 は学長と同じ人件費だ.都市部大学の教授でも年収は1000万円いくかどうかと いうから,その待遇の破格ぶりが分かる.(p.140)

この額,前ページの表にあるとおり,全国89大学で年間100億円近くに達す るそこに文科省をはじめとする中央官僚がこぞって天下りをするの ではないか──というわけなのだ.…(p.140)

官僚が大学を『知行地』として,理事定員を『石高』としてみている証拠で す」(筑波大・K助教授)(p.140)


私どものヒット商品に,87年に発売していまも売れ続けている「バイオライト」 がある.卓上ライトで,人間の目に最もやさしい,日の出から30分くらいの光 を再現したものだ.…

糖などとはかけ離れたような製品だが,これは人間の目に 自然な光を追い求めることから生まれた.


以来,そのまま同じ名前でわず かずつだが生産を続けている.恐らく現役の薬では,最も長命な薬の一つであ ろう.

アレルギーや自己免疫疾患に効果がある.わが社には世界のカラーフィ ルム用増感色素の約25%を供給する感光色素事業がある.ルミンはこの色素研 究からの産物だ.

こんな成果は「どんな製品ができる」「どのくらい売れる」と思って取り組ん でいるわけではない.ただただ,研究者たちが好きで興味があるからやってい る.研究で言えば,応用ではなく基礎研究の分野である.ある一人だけが好き な研究だから他人はやらず,競争者はいない.だから独創が生まれる

そんな好き勝手なことをやっていては,企業の研究開発は成立しないという意 見もあるかもしれない.でも,私の経験では違う.独創こそ割が合うのである. 応用研究は確かに多少は成果が見通せる.しかし,途中までの過程は他の人と 同じ.そこから出発するから,競って一番になった部分でしか利益を生み出さ ない.しかも,少し油断するとすぐに陳腐な技術になる.

基礎をベースにした研究は違う.研究のすそ野から成果にいたる過程,派生す る副産物まで,全てが自分のものだ.これは多少のことでは,他は追随できな い.独創はリスクが大きいと思われているが,実は逆で,人まねほどリスクの 大きなものはない

もちろん企業だから基礎研究ばかりというわけにはいかない.私のところでは 基礎が3,4割,応用が6,7割になる.でも,収益の何%といった研究費の枠は 一切ない. 基礎研究は時間がかかる.わが社の酵素研究も,何十年の地道な努力の上に成 り立っている.研究者は出張に行くと,その地の土を持ち帰り,いまも新しい 微生物を探し続けている.こうして世界的な微生物のコレクションができてい る.ここに,何かが眠っているのだ.

インターフェロンの永野泰一先生は,「独創は出したいと思っている人間には 出せない.事実を丹念に追っているうちに新しいことに巡り合う」と言わ れた.

少しでもいいもの,いい人に接する機会を増やす.創造性を高めるには,これ が一番である

接する相手には,新しい知見を手みやげにいっぱい持っていく. 相手にとってよい何かを,たくさん自分の中に持っておく.おもちゃ箱は私の 宝箱である.

林 原 健

臨終に際して北斎は,「天我をして十年の命を長ふせしめば」と言い, しばらくして語を継いで「天我をして五年の命を保たしめば,真正の画工 となるを得べし」.そう言い終わって瞑目したという.


市場調査………きのうまでの「人の行動」を数字で 知ること
マーケティング調査………明日からの「人の気持ち」を 言葉で知ること(pp.46-47)

「知ってる人」は三種類.「好きな人」「嫌いな人」「普通 の人」.

「ずいぶんいいヒントもらったなあ」「思いもよらないこと言うよなあ」…と いうような重要参考人も現われてくる.そんな方たちのことをよ〜く 思い返してみると,みんな「苦手な人」「話しにくかった人」 だったていうことに気づく.…
自覚してからはヒアリングの順番を変えた.「好きな人」の次は,迷わず 「嫌いな人」だ
「嫌い」と決めつけられないまでも,「とっつきにくい人」「なぜか苦手な人」 「日頃まったく口をきか(け)ない人」たち.異邦人との会話である. 自分にとっての未開ゾーンへと向かう.(pp.54-55)

「好きな人」「嫌いな人」はどこで会ってもいい.いずれも自然に場所は決ま る.「ふつうの人」だとそうはいかない.「知らない人」とな るとなおさらだ.そして,かならず犯してしまうのが,きらいな応接セッ トに招いてしまうというミスである.相手は大事な顧客予備軍様である. なのに「招いた」つもりが,実は「呼びつけている」.
ヒアリングを重ねていくと,聞きたい質問がふえていく.けれど,質問用紙な どは持たない.頭に叩きこんでおく.もちろん録音も厳禁.メモもダメ.謝礼 もなし.
相手は恋人候補である.恋人を前に質問用紙を持って,「私を好きですか」な んてやる人はいないだろう.飲食代も割り勘が理想だ.ま,相手によってはお ごる.電車賃実費というのも,相手によっては出す.…
いかにホンネが聞けるか.すべてがここにかかっている.一万円の謝 礼なんかもらった日にゃ,私だったらいいことしか言いませんからね.褒めま くる.(pp.58-59)

初対面でも抵抗感のない位置として,欧米でも日本でも心理学の実験で証明済 みのようだ.国によって心理的距離というのも違うらしい.「これ以 上は近づかないでくれ」という距離.個々人によっても違うんじゃないかと思 う.その距離感を意識して,ぎりぎりまで顔を寄せる.そして時には 離れ,時には寄り,言葉を交わしていく.(p.60)

外側にプロフィールがある.一番奥底に地球のマグマのような「ホ ンネの気持ち」がある.その中間にもっとも大きく広がっているのが 「体験」という層である.
ヒアリングは,心の最深奥部のマグマに向かって掘り進んでいく発掘作業 である

体験したこと,行動したことから入っていく. …
この話題が大好きなんだな….鉱脈を見きわめることができたら,どんどん掘 り進めていく.「思い」「感じ」「考え」「意見」「感想」「期待」「要望」 「批評」…などなど

ふつうはそう簡単に盛り上がらない.相手のリズムにあわせなくてはなら ない.早口であればこちらも早く,遅ければゆったりと.「体験層」にじ わじわと分け入っていく.

ぱっと急に顔が明るくなる,しゃべりのトーンが高くなる,声が大きくなっ たり,答えながらみずから笑い出す,人によっては鼻の穴がぷくっとふくらん だりする….
こりゃ関心が高いんだなと思ったら,すかさず「〜した」行動の動機,理由, 背景を聞く

(1) 属性                 「○○です」   「Be]  (一分かそこらで)
(2) 行動                 「○○した」   「Do」  (事実確認・5W1H)
(3) 動機・背景 「なぜなら〜」      「Because」      (「Why」を使う)
(4) 心理・思考・感情 「思う」「感じる」 「Feel」「Think]  (受けとめる)

マーケティングは「人の気持ちを知る」と訳した.「いい気持ち」も もちろん参考にするので,この訳はこれでO.K.
しかし,マーケティングの究極の目標は,「人の嫌な気持ちを知ること」 だと思っている.

ちなみに,送り手は「女性」というイメージでいつも進めてきた. 「モテない女」というイメージ.わがままな男性(消費者)の意見を 聞きながら磨いていくというイメージ.「磨けば実はすごくモテるのよ 」っていうイメージでもある.まことに個人的なイメージで申しわけない けれど,「モテモテ男」っていうイメージで進めていくと失敗するような気が する.(p.87)


市場調査と「身近ヒアリング」で,ほぼ全員が最低一回行ってるのは確認 ずみ.だから二問目以降の「どこへ」「誰と」「いくらで」…,特に「ど う思いましたか」の方が本題だったのである.
初日.「年・性・層」を手分けしてメンバーが散る.夜,全員戻って の報告会.
「国内旅行の質問にはゼロ回だけど,ペンション一回,沖縄・北海道,各一回 ですって」
「こいつすごいっすよ.スキー十三回だって.国内旅行はゼロって言ってます けどね」

三日目.新たに質問を加える.「国内旅行という言葉で思いつくイ メージは?」 何百人も聞き終えての結果.老若男女にかかわらず三点に集約できた.



全員の脳ミソをフル回転させて,会場に「夢」の嵐を巻き起こす.あらかじめ それなりのテーマが決まっていれば,「X」に代入する.「夢」を追い求める ことに代わりはない.(p.106)

どんな「夢」なのか.その「夢」は「誰」のものなのか.「何」を提供するか ら実現できるのか.
「夢」→「誰」→「何」と,まるで螺旋階段のように上へ,上へと,上って いく.(p.107)

なれないメンバーばかりだと,なかなかスタートできない.誰も口火が切れな い.これもふだんの会議の影響だと思う.「減点されないように」っていうの がいつものスタンスだろう.
聞いている人はどんどん相づちを打つ.演技でもいいから心をこめる.大げさ に
一周しても雰囲気がほぐれなければ二周目.なるべく早く順番無視で発言する のが望ましい.それを全員で心がける.早く場を乱さなくてはならない. (p.112)

ブレストを盛り上げるコツは,ポジティブな相づちをたくさん打つこと .「初めてのブレスト」っていうメンバーには,いつもそれだけをアドバ イスする.

7 「尻とらず」──ブレストがうまくなる練習ゲーム

もらった言葉とはまったくかけ離れた言葉を,次々と相手にバトンタッチ していくゲームである
「麦わら帽子といえば,山形の野原を思い出します.高校の夏休みのとき,ト ンボが…」
二人目が話し始める.麦わら帽子にまつわる経験,連想,薀蓄などをきち んと話す.ここでダラダラと長引くとブーイングとなる.およそ三分から 五分くらいだろうか.
話のいちばん最後に,「麦わら帽子」とはまるっきりかけ離れた単語を出さな いといけない

「赤字国債に縁がないようで実は…(三〜五分しゃべる)…,つまり濡れ 甘納豆ですよ」
うまく飛躍できたときの快感はこたえられない.「オ〜ッ」という歓声も上が る.
論理→ジャンプ.論理→ジャンプ.…と次々にバトンタッチをしていく. (pp.124-126)

会議での話し言葉でも,報告書での書き言葉でも.見て,聞いて,仕事が順調 に進んでいるかどうかがわかるモノサシが,経験上たった一つだけある
聞いたこともないむずかしい熟語.しゃれたカタカナ用語.そんなものが散乱 していたら,「あ,これはうまくいってないな」と思っていい.

ずらずら並ぶ漢字の熟語はに似てる.おしゃれなカタカナは流行の ファッション

じゃ,いったい誰に向かって の防御や虚勢か.
つまりきわめて内向きな日本語の行為だ.そんな言葉からは市場の生きた現実 は見えてこない. (p.133-134)




まとめる集団がデカくなるほど全くのウソではなくなる.何を言ったって当て はまる.だからなおさら始末が悪い.属性を議論していれば仕事をした気 になってしまう.しかしその実,仕事は止まっている.ただプロフィールを評 論しあっているだけだ.(p.140-141)

右手にロマン,左手にソロバン,心にジョーダン.この三つが,起業 の絶対三条件だ.(p.206)

学者や専門家の本に答えは書いていない.アカデミズムにあるのは 「恋愛論」だけ.きれいに整理された概念だけ.それでも読む.買う のはもったいないので,本屋で立ち読みする.

市場の風景をガラッと変えてしまうような「創造型商品」であればあるほど, 社内外からも,世間からも猛烈な反対にさらされるということ.
全員合議,全員賛成にこだわると,いいものは生まれない.市場を創造するこ とはできない. (pp.208-209)

ドイツがまだ東西に分断されていた頃,東ドイツ政府に招聘されたことがある. 東から見るベルリンの壁には落書き一つなかった.西側はぐちゃぐちゃ.西の 方がカッコいいなあと思った
日本にあちこちにある公共建築物は,どれもとてもきれいだ.けれど寂しくて つまらない.
東ドイツのようにならないこと,商品を公共建築物のままにしないこと,どん どん市場にあわせて変化させていくこと,いい意味で汚れていくこと,それが 初年度の目標である.(p.239)

日本航空を訪問したときのこと.ある幹部が「ここでは何だから…」と外に誘 う.
オフィスを出て喫茶店に入る.席についてまわりに目を配る.ひそひそと話し 始める.頭を寄せないと聞こえないほどの小さな声.一言も漏らさぬようにと, 身を乗り出して聞いた.
旅行業界には談合価格があること.方面別に細かく決める.君の雑誌には それを下回るツアーがかなり載っている.そのことを公に文句を言うわけには いかない.しかし業界は蜂の巣をつついた騒ぎ.とくに大手十一社はカンカン に怒っている.守らないかぎり彼らは絶対に載せない.
秘密の扉を開けると業界構造がどんどん見えてくる.談合価格にも二種類ある こと.
MTP(ミニマム・ツアー・プライス)とMMTP(ミニマム・ ミニマム・ツアー・プライス).以前「消費者」となったカウンターで,「… ブランド商品…」と言われた言葉を思い出した.

安かろう悪かろうのツアーは排除できないんですか.編集長の考えを聞かせ てください.

「旅には四種類あると思います.高かろう良かろう,高かろう悪かろう, 安かろう良かろう,安かろう悪かろう.一介のメディアですから偉そうな ことはできませんが,高かろう良かろう,安かろう良かろうを,なるべく 載せていきたいなと思っています」(pp.258-260)

「どのメディアがいちばん気になりますか?」「どれがいちばん好きですか?」 どこでもかならず聞かれる.マスコミ取材でも,講演でも,勉強会でも,プラ イベートでも.
そう答えると,「ふ〜ん,なるほど,確かに」などと,みなさん納得してくだ さる.(p.267)

くらた まなぶ

一死一生 乃(すなわ)ち交情を知り
一貧一富 乃
一貴一賤 交情乃






(おそ)らくは窮する者にして後(はじ)めて工(たく) みなるなり


The amount of evidence presented in court has increased strikingly in the last 40 years, Judge Kaplan said, and improved technology makes it easier for jurors to sift through the information.
"The benefit is that it makes the trial go a lot faster and thus enables us to do more in the same amount of time, and it is much clearer to the jury to be able to get information this way," Judge Kaplan said. "When it's well used, the juries love it."

"I'm a big believer in technology in the courtroom," said Kathleen M. McKenna, a partner with the New York law firm of Proskauer Rose who recently tried a case in Judge Kaplan's courtroom. "I think jurors expect it. They're used to talking heads with things moving behind them. They're used to seeing bulleted points even when they see magazine news shows."

Ms. McKenna added, "Lawyers who don't come prepared to use the technology do their clients a disservice and, in the eyes of the jurors, appear less prepared and less sophisticated."

Sherri DAY
"Electronic Order in the Court"
The New York Times, May 29, 2003

But more important, many doctors weigh risks and potential benefits of treatments in ways different from their patients without realizing that wide contrasts exist.

Risks, after all, are relative: what one person considers too dangerous, another might not. The way risks are presented and framed shapes our perceptions of them.

A patient once told me: "The night before my open heart operation, my surgeon told me I had a 5 percent chance I may die. I couldn't sleep all night." This patient, if instead told that he had a 95 percent chance of thriving after the surgery, would have slept much better.

But this psychiatrist was telling me something else, too: that doctors and patients view risks and benefits in drastically different manners.

"Seeing Risk and Reward Through a Patient's Eyes"
The New York Times, May 27, 2003

Dr. Arlie O. Petters grew up in a quiet corner of Belize, far from the intellectual centers of mathematics and physics and unaware of many of his career possibilities.
Today, as a United States citizen and the Martin Luther King Jr. visiting professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Petters, 39, is building a career bridging the fields of abstract mathematics and astrophysics.
He received his bachelor's and master's degrees from Hunter College in New York and his Ph.D. from M.I.T., studying at Princeton and later teaching there. Now, he is on leave from his post in the mathematics department at Duke.

Q. Were you in Hunter's special science program for minority students?
A. Yes, though not at first. It was interesting how that came about. I had a lot of tough personal problems at home. My stepfather and I did not get along. (We have since made up.) It came to a point where I couldn't take the situation anymore, and I left home. I was essentially on the streets of Brooklyn.
This occurred in my first year at Hunter College. And I remember reading a poster about this Minority Access to Research Careers, MARC, fellowship, which is sponsored by the N.I.H. This must have been like May or so. They had already selected the recipients for the next year. I approached the head of the program, Jim Wyche, and said to him:
"I've left home, I have no money, I'm bumming around, living in different places. My grandmother wants me to immediately return to Belize. Would you consider me for the fellowship this late?"
He spoke to people. Within like two weeks, I had the fellowship and he'd found housing for me at the Hunter dorm. Without that -- without what now would be called affirmative action -- someone like me would have ended up back in a field in Belize picking citrus.

Q. You've clearly benefited from affirmative action. Do you support the concept?
A. Passionately. I believe that minorities and white females have truly benefited from affirmative action. I think you could even broaden it for economically disadvantaged whites.

Q. Astrophysics is obviously a meritocracy. Nonetheless, have colleagues sometimes held your affirmative action background against you?
A. Oh, yes. You know, I didn't really understand race as a concept until I came to America, when strangers on the street called the "n" word at me. In Belize, I grew up my preteen years without being demeaned, and yet, once I got here, with all the opportunities I enjoyed, I've suffered from racism too.
I've gone to professional receptions and been mistaken for a waiter. I was at a certain prestigious institution, at a reception welcoming new students, and I was the only one of color there. When I walked into the room everyone turned around and stared at me.
I walked over to the nearest table of people that looked my age and introduced myself. To make conversation, I asked someone how one got to a certain office in the building. "Make a left, or you can tie a rope to the ceiling and swing over to the other side," this person answered.
When this happened, I went back in my mind to the whites I met in Belize, who'd treated me fairly. I said to myself, "Everyone is not like this person." If I had grown up in the U.S., where you get bombarded by this stuff from childhood on, maybe I wouldn't have had it within myself to go on. That's why I think we need affirmative action. Racism injures people and unfairly holds them back.

Q. Less than 1 percent of mathematics Ph.D.'s are African-American. Is there anything that can be done about that?
A. I feel that people like me and others can provide a powerful role model because we give young people an opportunity to see someone like them doing this kind of work. And they see that we're happy, not bitter, full of energy, planted in a solid place. That's powerful.
Every year during Black History Month I get about a hundred e-mails from kids doing projects. They ask about what it is like to have a career in math. I answer them all -- just like David Blackwell, who is one of the top African-American mathematicians in the country -- once answered my letter.

Q. What difference does it make who teaches general relativity? If ever there was a raceless subject, wouldn't this be it?
A. Well, the classroom experience is not completely raceless. I know of cases where certain white professors ask minority students, "Are you sure you belong in this course?" and show shock when such students excel in their advanced courses. It makes a difference for minority students to see a person like them teaching such courses.

"A CONVERSATION WITH ARLIE PETTERS: A Journey to Bridge Math and the Cosmos"
The New York Times, May 27, 2003

There have been 107 death row exonerations in the country since 1973, only 3 of which have involved juveniles. During that period Louisiana has had five exonerations, two of which have involved juveniles.
"This case answers the question, `What's wrong with the death penalty?' " Mr. Sothern said. "It's the death penalty trifecta: a juvenile, who's mentally retarded, and in fact innocent."

"DNA Clears Louisiana Man on Death Row, Lawyer Says"
The New York Times, April 22, 2003

信条は原則としてもっていても,そこは融通を利かして生きのびる,というこ とが大切.ヒットラーや東条みたいな,信念に殉じる人が出て来て采配を振ら れては,とても平和が四十年もつづかない.(p.255)

日本の社会には,往々,面白いものは低俗で,芸術はむつかしいものだという 思いこみがあるが,大衆は半分はそう思いこまされつつ,半分は,すこやかな 直観で,「それはどッか,おかしいのん,ちゃうか?」と思っている. (p.354)


Louie, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship.


O Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name!

Jeanne-Manon Roland

Where men must beg with bated breath for leave to subsist in their own land, to think their own thoughts, to sing their own songs, to garner the fruits of their own labours ... then surely it is braver, a saner and truer thing, to be a rebel ... than tamely to accept it as the natural lot of men.

Roger Casement

The paper burns, but the words fly free.

Akiba ben Joseph

大店法は出店の自由を奪う一方,既得権を認めたため,小売業の経営をゆ がめた.反対運動が激しかった店ほど競争がないので成績がよかった.半 面,効率的な店舗配置が妨げられ,甘い経営が許されたので,土地や建物,賃 金のコストを高めて経営を非効率にした.大手小売業の倒産もなく,売り 上げ順位の変動もない,かつての銀行と同じ横並び状態をもたらした

目的だった零細小売業を守ることもできず,商店街の衰退,空洞化にも歯 止めはかからなかった.日本には労働市場も不動産市場も資本市場もなかった ばかりか,本当の商品市場もなかった

世界の非常識の高地価を生んだ土地資本主義と,行き過ぎた規制社会のツ ケが国内産業の高コストと物価高を招いた


Without affirmative action, the United States might not be able to defend itself from foreign enemies. That startling assertion comes from a legal brief filed by high-ranking retired officers and civilian leaders of the military, including Adm. William Crowe Jr., the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under President Ronald Reagan, and Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, commander of allied forces during the first gulf war.

... In Vietnam, the military brief notes, many African-Americans served among the enlisted but few were officers, and the forces were racially polarized. It became so bad, the brief says, the leadership feared that the military was "on the verge of self-destruction." But race-based recruitment programs increased the percentage of minority officers and greatly improved race relations.

Fortune 500 companies tell the court about the importance they, too, place on affirmative action. A brief on behalf of 65 corporations, including Microsoft, Coca-Cola and General Electric, asserts that racial and ethnic diversity in colleges and universities is vital to the companies' ability to maintain a diverse work force, and ultimately to their "continued success in the global marketplace."

"Friends of Affirmative Action"
The New York Times, April 1, 2003

J. Hugh Liedtke, the longtime head of the Pennzoil Company who began his career by drilling scores of consecutive successful oil wells with his partner, George H. W. Bush, and went on to win billions of dollars from Texaco in a dramatic legal battle, died on Friday in Houston. He was 81.

Early in his career, he engineered one of the first major hostile takeovers when Pennzoil acquired the United Gas Pipeline Company, which was nearly eight times the size of Pennzoil. It was described at the time as a minnow swallowing a whale.

But his biggest triumph came in the courtroom where his legal team convinced a jury in 1988 that Texaco had illegally usurped his handshake deal to acquire an interest in the Getty Oil Company. He ended up with $3 billion that he used to acquire Chevron stock, only to trade that back to the company for lucrative oil and gas properties.

He had earlier turned down a $2 billion settlement offer from Texaco, causing Fortune magazine to ask him if he was the greediest man in the world or needed psychiatric help.

"Maybe both," he answered in the slow, gravelly voice that perhaps deliberately belied his extensive education. He then showed his famous teeth, saying he was prepared to wait for years for more money.

"Maybe now we should sit back a while and see how they like bankruptcy," he told Fortune. Texaco was indeed forced to seek bankruptcy protection.

When he finally got the $3 billion that he considered adequate from Texaco, Mr. Liedtke celebrated with a double cheeseburger and two bottles of beer at a Houston hamburger emporium he favored.

Douglas MARTIN
"J. Hugh Liedtke, 81, Oilman Who Bested Texaco in Court"
The New York Times, April 1, 2003