d M(n) 4: c 1*3 1/ 84 TI = The use of the wavelet transform for improvement of axial resolution of pulse-echo ultrasonic image AU = Hamamoto, K., Nishimura, T. (Dept. of Commun. Eng., Tokai Univ., Kanagawa, Japan) SO = Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE IECON. 22nd International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation (Cat. No.96CH35830), 536-9 vol.1, 3 vol. (lxxiv+xxxiv+1995), 1996 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = Axial resolution of the pulse-echo ultrasonic image depends on pulse duration. Therefore, inverse filtering methods have been proposed to improve the resolution. The center frequency of pulse wave, however, shifts to a lower frequency as it travels in biological media, so that pulse duration becomes longer. In addition to this problem, pulse waves reflected in deep regions cannot be recognized due to their low signal to noise ratios. The authors propose a method using the wavelet transform to improve the resolution. The wavelet transform is a method for time-frequency analysis. The incident pulse wave is used as the mother wavelet in this method. Simulation results show that it is possible to improve axial resolution and to detect reflective index in noise by this method. 2/ 84 TI = Smoothing of miniature eye movement using wavelet analysis when gazing a fixed target AU = Yoshimatsu, H. (Res. Center, Sony Corp., Yokohama, Japan) SO = J. Inst. Telev. Eng. Jpn. (Japan), vol.50, no.12, 1903-12, Dec. 1996 PU = Inst. Telev. Eng. Japan AB = Wavelet analysis of eye movements when subjects gaze at a fixed target is proposed. This enables us to get a low-noise waveform of eye movement from raw data. Time derivatives of the data, i.e., velocity and acceleration, can be easily obtained using this method. The results are compared with the results obtained by a method that smooths the waveform of miniature eye movement using an FIR filter. Three applications are discussed: a representation of eye movement using a chaotic attractor, a vector representation of acceleration of eye movement, and a statistical analysis to estimate minute skewness of miniature eye movement acceleration. The decrease of the blink component using wavelet analysis is also discussed. These applications can be used to evaluate the picture quality of new virtual and stereoscopic displays. 3/ 84 TI = Optical wavelet processor by holographic bipolar encoding and joint- transform correlation AU = Hirokawa, K., Itoh, K., Ichioka, Y. (Dept. of Mater. & Life Sci., Osaka Univ., Japan) SO = Appl. Opt. (USA), vol.36, no.5, 1023-6, 10 Feb. 1997 PU = Opt. Soc. America AB = A novel optical wavelet processor based on the techniques of the joint- transform correlator and computer-generated holograms is proposed. A coding technique that is a simplified version of Lee's hologram ×Appl. Opt. 9, 639 (1970)Ý is used to represent positive and negative values for the object signal and wavelet functions. We experimentally demonstrate that wavelet transforms of two different daughter wavelet functions can be simultaneously obtained by the appropriate arrangement of the daughter wavelet functions and the object signal on the input plane. 4/ 84 TI = Analysis of wavelet transform in electric charge distribution in dielectric liquids using pressure wave method AU = Hirai, N., Takao, H., Nishimoto, S., Arii, K. (Fac. of Eng., Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan), vol.35, no.12A, 6282-5, Dec. 1996 PU = Publication Office, Japanese Journal Appl. Phys AB = In our laboratory, a polymer piezoelectric vibrator and an acoustic emission sensor have been used for generation of pressure waves in dielectric liquids. A large amount of noise is contained in experimental data of charge distribution obtained using the pressure wave method. For removal of this noise, the wavelet transform was used in the data analysis. The noise removal from and time-frequency analysis of experimental data were performed simultaneously. The removal of noise from the data using the wavelet transform could make a more clear waveform than the waveform of the measured data. Therefore, it was clear that the wavelet analysis can be applied to measurement of charge distribution in dielectric liquids using the pressure wave method. 5/ 84 TI = Application of loudness/pitch/timbre decomposition operators to auditory scene analysis AU = Abe, M., Ando, S. (Dept. of Math. Eng. & Inf. Phys., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = 1996 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.96CH35903), 2646-9 vol. 5, 6 vol. lvii+3588, 1996 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = Abe and Ando (see Proc. IEEE ICASSP95, p.1368-71, 1995) proposed nonlinear operators which decompose a changing energy of sound in the wavelet domain into three orthogonal components: i.e., loudness and pitch as coherent changes, and timbre as an incoherent change. They showed that they could detect the discontinuity of a single sound stream with excellent temporal resolution and sensitivity. In this paper, they extend the coherency principle so that it can describe and pursue the individual coherency of non-overlapping sound streams in the wavelet domain. It is realized by Parzen's non-parametric estimates and Kalman filtering of the loudness change rate and the pitch shift rate. Using this method, they show some experiments for the extraction of the most salient stream from multiple sound streams. 6/ 84 TI = Detection of nonstationary signal in brain waves AU = Ishii, N., Tang, Z., Iguchi, H., Sasaki, H. (Dept. of Intelligence & Comput. Sci., Nagoya Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference: Modelling, Simulation and Identification, 116-19, iii+271, 1994 PU = IASTED, Calgary, Alta., Canada AB = K-complex in human's EEG, which is a nonstationary wave, are detected by the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The features of K-complex waves are extracted in terms of three parameters: the local maxima of the wavelet transform modulus, average slope and the number of DWT coefficients in a wave. The 4-order B-spline wavelet is selected as the wavelet basis. Two channels at different resolutions are used to detect slow wave and sleep spindle contained in the K-complex. The EEG signal containing K-complexes elicited by sound stimuli is used as pattern to train the classifiers. 7/ 84 TI = Attempts of fully automated home health monitoring systems AU = Togawa, T., Tamura, T., Kimura, Y., Ogawa, M. (Inst. for Med. & Dental Eng., Tokyo Med. & Dental Univ., Japan) SO = Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (UK), vol.34, SUPPL.1, PT.1, 31-2, 1996 PU = Peter Peregrinus for Int. Fed. Med. & Biol. Eng AB = Monitoring of daily activity and health condition at home using fully automated instruments is proposed. As a preliminary study, monitoring of temperatures on a bed, and automatic recording of ECG in a Japanese- style bath tub were attempted. Automatic personal identification in ECG measurement was attempted using the wavelet transform and a neural network. Further possible applications of home health monitoring are discussed. 8/ 84 TI = Wavelet representation for the solution of radial Schrodinger equation AU = Yamaguchi, K., Mukoyama, T. (Inst. for Chem. Res., Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (UK), vol.29, no.18, 4059-71, 28 Sept. 1996 PU = IOP Publishing AB = The Meyer orthonormal wavelet is applied for solving radial Schrodinger equations for atoms. The validity of the present method has been tested by calculating the energy eigenvalues, wavefunctions, radiative transition rates, and partial photo-ionization cross sections. The advantage of employing wavelets as a basis set for atomic and molecular systems over other basis functions is discussed. 9/ 84 TI = New digital techniques for precise measurement of surface wave velocity with acoustic microscope AU = Okade, M., Hasebe, T., Kawai, T., Kawashima, K. (Aisin Seiki Corp., Kariya, Japan) SO = Mater. Sci. Forum (Switzerland), vol.210-213, PT.2, 839-46, 1996 PU = Trans Tech Publications AB = A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) has been used to visualize variations in local acoustic properties at the surface or the subsurface of solids using a high frequency surface wave, usually above 100 MHz. In addition, the SAM can measure a surface wave velocity using a V(Z) curve. If the surface wave velocity can be accurately measured using the V(Z) curve, it is possible to evaluate minute microstructual changes and surface stresses within a very localized region. 10/ 84 TI = Wavelet solution of the inverse parameter problems AU = Doi, T., Hayano, S., Saito, Y. (Coll. of Eng., Hosei Univ., Tokyo, Japan) SO = IEEE CEFC '96. The Seventh Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 404, 498, 1996 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = Previously, we have proposed a method for solving the inverse problems, and successfully applied it to biomagnetic fields as well as nondestructive testing in metallic materials. In the present paper, we propose a novel inverse approach for the parameter determination problems employing the wavelet analysis. A simple example demonstrates the validity of our approach. 11/ 84 TI = A wavelet transform approach to inverse problems of Vandermonde systems AU = Yoda, K., Saito, Y. (Adv. Technol. R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electr. Corp., Amagasaki, Japan) SO = IEEE CEFC '96. The Seventh Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 401, 498, 1996 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = Inverse problems of Vandermonde systems were solved using the discrete wavelet transform. The inverse matrices of the transformed subsystem were calculated, thereby locating the largest well-conditioned submatrix. The reduced system was solved and the solution was inversely transformed. The results were compared among different wavelet basis functions, indicating that the Daubechies-4 wavelets lead to much more accurate solutions than the Haar pulse wavelets. A simple technique for eliminating systematic noise is also proposed to further improve the accuracy of the final solution. A one-dimensional current sheet model having 32 elements was employed and the magnetic field distribution near the surface was calculated to simulate measurement data. 12/ 84 TI = Incomplete discrete wavelet transform and its application to a Poisson equation solver AU = Tanaka, N., Terasaka, H., Shimizu, T., Takigawa, Y. (Nucl. Eng. Lab., Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Japan) SO = J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. (Japan), vol.33, no.7, 555-61, July 1996 PU = Atomic Energy Soc. Japan AB = This paper introduces an incomplete discrete wavelet transform (iDWT), which is applied to a preconditioning method for linear equation systems discretized from differential equations. The linear systems can be solved with a matrix solver, but the convergence speed becomes worse with increase of condition number, which exponentially increases with the scale magnification. The use of wavelets in linear systems has an advantage in that a diagonal rescaling makes the number become bounded by a limited value, and the advantage is utilized in a matrix solver presented by G. Beylkin (1994). The method, however, has several problems and is difficult to apply to the real numerical analysis. To solve the problems, we introduce the iDWT method that approximates the discrete wavelet transform and is easy to implement in the computational analysis. The effects and advantages of the iDWT preconditioning are confirmed with one- and two-dimensional boundary value problems of elliptic equations. On a Cray C94D vector computer, the iDWT preconditioned CG method can solve the 2D Poisson equation, discretized with 1024*1024 grid points, about 14 times faster than the ICCG method. 13/ 84 TI = Experimental wavelet analysis of flexural waves in beams AU = Inoue, H., Kishimoto, K., Shibuya, T. (Dept. of Mech. & Intelligent Syst. Eng., Tokyo Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = Exp. Mech. (USA), vol.36, no.3, 212-17, Sept. 1996 PU = Sage Science Press AB = The wavelet transform (WT) is applied to the time-frequency analysis of flexural waves in beams. The WT with the Gabor wavelet decomposes a dispersive wave into each frequency component in the time domain, which enables one to determine the travelling time of a wave along the beam at each frequency. By utilizing this fact, a method is developed to identify the dispersion relation and impact site of beams. 14/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of one-dimensional cosmological density fluctuations AU = Fujiwara, Y., Soda, J. (Yukawa Inst. for Theor. Phys., Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = Prog. Theor. Phys. (Japan), vol.95, no.6, 1059-77, June 1996 PU = Yukawa Inst. Theor. Phys. & Phys. Soc. Japan AB = Wavelet analysis is proposed as a new tool for studying the large-scale structure formation of the universe. To reveal its usefulness, the wavelet decomposition of a one-dimensional model of cosmological density fluctuations is performed. In contrast with Fourier analysis, the wavelet analysis has the advantage of the ability to retain information concerning location of local density peaks in addition to that of their scales. The wavelet decomposition of evolving density fluctuations with various initial conditions is examined. We argue that the wavelet analysis is an alternative useful tool for data analysis as well as nonlinear analysis and may be usefully employed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and COBE analyses. 15/ 84 TI = Real-time optical wavelet-transform with joint transform correlator AU = Hirokawa, K., Itoh, K., Ichioka, Y. (Osaka Univ., Japan) SO = 1996 International Topical Meeting on Optical Computing. Technical Digest, 212-13 vol.1, 2 vol. (xviii+263+21), 1996 PU = Japan Soc. Appl. Phys, Tokyo, Japan AB = An optical system of the wavelet transform based on the joint transform correlator (JTC) is proposed and demonstrated. A new coding technique that uses the analogy to the computer generated holograms is also proposed. 16/ 84 TI = Doppler signal processing of blood flow using a wavelet transform AU = Matani, A., Oshiro, O., Chihara, K. (Graduate Sch. of Inf. & Sci., Nara Inst. of Sci. & Technol., Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan), vol.35, no.5B, 3131-4, May 1996 PU = Publication Office, Japanese Journal Appl. Phys AB = In medical echography, Doppler signal analysis is one of the most important diagnostic techniques. In Doppler signal analysis, time- frequency localization techniques are necessary. Many techniques have been proposed for the analysis. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is one of the most popular techniques. STFT has a fixed time-frequency window making it inappropriate for analysis of signals having a wide bandwidth. On the other hand, recently, the wavelet transform (WT) has received much attention. WT has a flexible time-frequency window adaptable to any time-frequency range. Here, the authors describe an application of STFT and WT to Doppler signal processing. The STFT in this study had a rectangular window and required fast Fourier transform (FFT). The WT with a Morlet function as the mother wavelet was modified to reduce the amount of calculation. Then, the authors compared the suitability of STFT and WT for application to Doppler signal processing of a simulation and an actual blood flow. In the simulation, a flow having fast and slow velocity changes was assumed. The simulation revealed that the WT could reproduce the fast change of flow velocity, while the STFT could not. Then, a blood flow Doppler signal was measured at a point near the mitral valve in the left ventricle. Only the WT was capable of reproducing the fast change of flow velocity in the heart. The WT is expected to be useful for analyzing blood flow disorders such as regurgitation. 17/ 84 TI = Acoustic imaging for archaeological investigations using wavelet transform AU = Hachiya, H., Amao, Y. (Dept. of Inf. & Comput. Sci., Chiba Univ., Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. (Japan), vol.35, no.5B, 3101-4, May 1996 PU = Publication Office, Japanese Journal Appl. Phys AB = Recently, scientific methods such as acoustical survey or ground radar, have been used in the survey of buried remnants. Archaeological cultural property is often buried at a shallow depth of about 1 to 5 m. In the configuration presented here, we receive various waves, such as the direct wave along the surface, longitudinal wave and transverse wave, at almost the same time. In this paper, we propose a processing technique using the wavelet transform to separate the desired signal. From a survey experiment at the test site, it was found that this processing technique is useful for the reconstruction of underground images for archaeological investigations. 18/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of electric field changes due to lightning discharges AU = Wada, M., Ushio, T., Kawada, M., Kawasaki, Z., Matsuura, K., Matsui, T. ( Osaka Univ., Japan) SO = Trans. Inst. Electr. Eng. Jpn. B (Japan), vol.116-B, no.4, 469-74, APRIL 1996 PU = Inst. Electr. Eng. Japan AB = Electric field changes due to lightning discharges are analyzed by means of wavelets. Since the electric field changes are non-stationary phenomena, the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is not sufficient to investigate the transition of electric field spectra as functions of time. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the forecasting of lightning to the ground to consult the transition of electric fields. For this purpose the typical electric field changes of the positive cloud to ground strokes, which were observed during winter thunderstorms, are analyzed. The transition of spectra corresponding to the preliminary breakdown pulses, return strokes and continuing currents with pulses are shown and the feasibility of forecasting is suggested. 19/ 84 TI = Method for noninvasive estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure based on analysis of heart wall vibration AU = Sato, M., Kanai, H., Chubachi, N., Honda, H., Koiwa, Y. (Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan) SO = Electron. Lett. (UK), vol.32, no.11, 949-50, 23 May 1996 PU = IEE AB = The authors present a new noninvasive method for measurement of the left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure by combining Mirsky`s (1974) method and the experimentally derived relationship among the elasticity of the LV wall, the LV sizes and the LV instantaneous mode-2 eigenfrequency. The LV instantaneous eigenfrequency is selectively determined from the time-frequency distribution obtained by applying the wavelet transform (WT) to the nonstationary vibration on the heart wall. 20/ 84 TI = An application of the wavelets to the magnetic field source searching AU = Doi, T., Yoshida, S., Nakaya, Y., Hayano, S., Saito, Y. (Coll. of Eng., Hosei Univ., Koganei, Japan) SO = J. Appl. Phys. (USA), vol.79, no.8, PT.2A, 4699-701, 15 APRIL 1996 PU = AIP AB = Recently, wavelet analysis is being applied to various fields, such as image data compression in informatics and spectrum analysis of the electrocardiogram. In the present article, we propose two approaches, employing wavelet analysis for the human heart diagnosis. One is the data base approach, and the other is an inverse approach searching for the magnetic field source of the human heart. The data base approach is an application of the data compression to the magnetocardiogram. Also, the magnetic field source searching is an application of the spectrum analysis to the magnetocardiogram. The results reveal that the data base approach makes it possible to identify the normal or abnormal heart, and the magnetic field source search is capable of estimating the current distribution of a distinct heart. 21/ 84 TI = Wavelet encoded MR imaging AU = Shimizu, K., Ueguchi, T., Tamura, S., Nakamura, H. (Osaka Univ., Japan) SO = Med. Imaging Technol. (Japan), vol.14, no.3, 252-7, May 1996 PU = Japanese Soc. Med. Imaging Technol AB = Wavelet encoding has been proposed as an alternative method to Fourier based phase encoding in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In wavelet encoding, the RF pulse is designed to generate a wavelet-shaped excitation profile of spins. From the resulting echo signals, the wavelet transform coefficients of spin distribution are acquired and an original spin density is reconstructed from wavelet expansion. Wavelet encoding has several advantages over phase encoding. It has a unique capability to spatially select the resolution of the reconstructed images, because of the multiresolution property of compactly supported wavelet representation. By minimizing redundancy of the data acquisition in a dynamic series of images, one can avoid some encoding steps without serious loss of quality in the reconstructed image. This strategy may be regarded as data compression during imaging. Although there are some limitations in wavelet encoding, it is a promising scheme for dynamic imaging. 22/ 84 TI = Density anomaly effect upon silicon melt flow during Czochralski crystal growth. II. Time-topical flow structure under the growth interface AU = Togawa, S., Chung, S.I., Kawanishi, S., Izunome, K., Terashima, K., Kimura, S. (Res. Dev. Corp. of Japan (JRDC), Japan) SO = J. Cryst. Growth (Netherlands), vol.160, no.1-2, 49-54, MARCH 1996 PU = Elsevier AB = For pt.I see ibid., vol.160, p.41 (1996). The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of density anomaly upon the time-topical structure of the melt flow under the crystal growth interface by applying a wavelet transform to the temperature fluctuation in this region. The fluctuation components that have a period of about 44 seconds appear irregularly on the time axis and are considered to be caused by detachment of the boundary layer near the bottom of the crucible in the case of a relatively deep melt. This is the characteristic phenomenon of "soft turbulence", as described in a previous paper These fluctuation components disappear when gallium is added to the shallow melt, whereas the flow structure remains turbulence-like in the cases of undoped and B-doped shallow melts. A detailed statistical analysis of this time-topical flow structure showed that this flow regime stays unsteady and the flow situation changes from moment to moment. When gallium is added, the flow structure becomes laminar-like and differs clearly from the other two cases. We can thus confirm the existence of a silicon melt density anomaly in the crystal growth system and its influence upon the flow structure. 23/ 84 TI = Detection of onsets in seismic wave with wavelet analysis AU = Ishikawa, R., Tokuhiro, I. (Kanagawa Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.52, no.2, 105-11, Feb. 1996 PU = Acoust. Soc. Japan AB = For the purpose of predicting earthquakes, it is useful to make the seismometry processing system automatic. However, the detection of onsets and the determination of the arrival times prevent the system from becoming automatic. This paper presents a new statistical method to detect onsets and to determine the arrival time by the examination of spectral change from a noise to a seismic wave, the expansion of a seismic wave into the time-frequency domain with Gabor or Laplacian- Gaussian wavelets and short-time Fourier transform. 24/ 84 TI = Acoustic diagnosis for blower with wavelet transform and neural networks AU = Kotani, M., Ueda, Y., Matsumoto, H., Kanagawa, T. (Fac. of Eng., Kobe Univ., Japan) SO = 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks Proceedings (Cat. No.95CH35828), 718-23 vol.2, 6 vol. l+3219, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = It is important for this diagnosis to detect the surging phenomena which lead to the destruction of the blower. Since the surging sound is a non-stationary signal, the wavelet transform is more suitable for the pre-processing method than FFT transform. The dyadic wavelet transform is used as the pre-processing method. The multi-layered neural network is used as the discrimination method. The results show that the neural network with the wavelet transform can detect the surging sound perfectly. 25/ 84 TI = An optimal auditory filter AU = Toshio, I. (NTT Basic Res. Labs., Kanagawa, Japan) SO = 1995 IEEE ASSP Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics (Cat. No.95TH8144), 198-201, 284, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = The optimality of the peripheral auditory filter is investigated using operator methods applied to a scale representation. A `gammachirp` function, which consists of a frequency modulated carrier and an envelope of a gamma distribution function, is found to be the optimal auditory filter in terms of minimal uncertainty if the time-scale representation is calculated in the auditory system. The gammatone function is the first-order approximation of the gammachirp function. The gammachirp function has an asymmetrical Fourier power spectrum and fits the psychoacoustic auditory filter shape better than the gammatone function. Wavelet configuration is optimal for the auditory filterbank in terms of invariability in the scale representation. Data for equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) suggest the wavelet gammachirp filterbank is feasible for characteristic frequencies above 800 Hz. 26/ 84 TI = Application of wavelet analysis to wind disturbances observed with MST radar techniques AU = Shimomai, T., Yamanaka, M.D., Fukao, S. (Radio Atmos. Sci. Center, Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (UK), vol.58, no.6, 683-96, APRIL 1996 PU = Elsevier AB = A computer program following the orthonormal wavelet analysis algorithm developed by Yamada and Ohkitani (1991) is applied to an analysis of local and transient behaviours of internal gravity waves from a finite- length, discrete data record of the vertical profile of wind velocity provided by the MST radar technique. The functionality of this program has been confirmed by simultaneously simulating well-known spectral and monochromatic features (such as the -3 power law of a vertical wave- number spectrum and the upward increase of predominant vertical wavelength) by a summation of several wavelet components corresponding to localized gravity waves. This simulation is used also to study the reliability of the wavelet analysis program. It is shown that, by adding 64 null data at each end of the profiles, all the wavelet coefficients can be obtained by this program, apart from those at each end. The authors have applied this program to about 1000 vertical profiles of zonal and meridional winds in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere (2-20 km altitude) which are obtained from 30 min averages of three weeks of continuous observation data with an MST radar (the MU radar in Japan) during June-July 1991. They find from the wavelet analysis that quasi-monochromatic waves with vertical wavelength approximately=2 km are dominant above the tropopause, and that activities of the shorter or longer waves have different vertical distributions. Striking temporal variations of vertical distributions of wave activity are also clearly found by the wavelet analysis. 27/ 84 TI = Boiling anomaly detection by various signal characterization methods AU = Sakuma, M., Kozma, R., Kitamura, M., Schoonewelle, H., Hoogenboom, J.E. ( Dept. of Nucl. Eng., Tohoku Univ., Japan) SO = SMORN VII. A Symposium on Nuclear Reactor Surveillance and Diagnostics. Proceedings, 3.9/1-9 vol.1, 2 vol. (462+510), 1995 PU = OECD Nucl. Energy Agency, Issy les Moulineaux, France AB = In order to detect anomalies in the very early stage for complex dynamical systems like nuclear power plants, it is important to characterize various statistical features of the data acquired in normal operating condition. In this paper, concept of the hierarchical anomaly monitoring method is outlined, which is based on the diversification principle. In addition to usual time and frequency domain analysis (FFT, APDF, MAR-SPRT), other analysis (wavelet, fractal, etc.) are performed. As soon as any inconsistency arises in the results of the analysis on the upper level, a thorough analysis is initiated. A comparison among these methods is performed and the efficiency of the diversification approach has been demonstrated through simulated boiling anomalies in nuclear reactors. 28/ 84 TI = Wavelet transforms associated to a principal series representation of semisimple Lie groups. II AU = Kawazoe, T. (Dept. of Math., Keio Univ., Japan) SO = Proc. Jpn. Acad. A, Math. Sci. (Japan), vol.71, no.7, 158-60, Sept. 1995 PU = Japan Acad AB = For pt. 1, see ibid., vol. 71A, p. 154-7 (1995). We suppose that S is an arbitrary measureable set with map l:S to G and we consider a distribution vector phi in I`(N) which depend on s in S. 29/ 84 TI = Wavelet transforms associated to a principal series representation of semisimple Lie groups. I AU = Kawazoe, T. (Dept. of Math., Keio Univ., Japan) SO = Proc. Jpn. Acad. A, Math. Sci. (Japan), vol.71, no.7, 154-7, Sept. 1995 PU = Japan Acad AB = We investigate a transform associated to a principal series representation of noncompact semisimple Lie groups and we obtain a generalisation of the Grossmann-Morlet transform and Carderon identity. 30/ 84 TI = Adaptive active noise control schemes in time-domain and transform- domains AU = Jiang, F., Ojiro, N., Ohmori, H., Sano, A. (Dept. of Electr. Eng., Keio Univ., Yokohama, Japan) SO = Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (Cat. No.95CH35803), 2165-72 vol.3, 4 vol. 4385, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = A general structure of adaptive active noise control systems is investigated to propose stability-assured adaptive algorithms to update parameters of an adaptive feedforward controller. In order to deal with a general case where all of the sound transmission channel dynamics are uncertainly changeable, which cannot be solved by conventional approaches, a new fully adaptive algorithm is also presented on a basis of robust stabilization by a fixed feedback controller and the strictly positive real property of a newly given error system. The proposed adaptive algorithms can be implemented by not only the time-domain approaches, but also a frequency-domain approach using an adaptive frequency sampling filter and a wavelet transform domain approach using an adaptive wavelet packet filter bank. Comparison of the three proposed approaches is given through numerical simulations and experiments. 31/ 84 TI = JERS-1 SAR image analysis by wavelet transform AU = Yamaguchi, Y., Nagai, T., Yamada, H. (Fac. of Eng., Niigata Univ., Japan) SO = IEICE Trans. Commun. (Japan), vol.E78-B, no.12, 1617-21, Dec. 1995 PU = Inst. Electron. Inf. & Commun. Eng AB = The wavelet transform provides information both in the spatial domain and in the frequency domain because of its inherent nature of space- frequency analysis. The paper presents a classification result of synthetic aperture radar imagery obtained by JERS-1 based on the discrete wavelet transform. The paper points out that the wavelet analysis has yielded a fine result in texture classification compared to a conventional method with less computation time. 32/ 84 TI = Optical Haar wavelet transforms with liquid crystal elements AU = Zhan He, Honma, M., Masuda, S., Nose, T., Sato, S. (Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Akita Univ., Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes (Japan), vol.34, no.12A, 6433-8, Dec. 1995 PU = Publication Office, Japanese Journal Appl. Phys AB = Optical Haar wavelet transforms are achieved with liquid crystal (LC) elements: patterned-electrode liquid crystal cells serve as generators of optical Haar wavelets, and LC microlens arrays are used in the fabrication of shadow-casting systems. The phase modulation characteristics of the patterned electrode LC cells are investigated by applying a voltage, and the 1-dimension, 2-dimension rectangular and circular Haar wavelets are obtained by adjusting the voltage applied to the LC cells. A shadow-casting system composed of a LC microlens array is proposed. Due to the variability of the focal length of the LC microlens, good optical wavelet transforms can be achieved readily. 33/ 84 TI = An analysis of wind velocity fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer using an orthonormal wavelet transform AU = Hayashi, T. (Disaster Prevention Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = Bound.-Layer Meteorol. (Netherlands), vol.70, no.3, 307-26, Aug. 1994 PU = Kluwer Academic Publishers AB = A wavelet analysis can supply information of both the location (time) and the scale of fluctuations. This method is applied to the fluctuations of the natural wind and the turbulent transport of momentum in the atmospheric surface layer. The shapes of both the wavelet spectra and the Fourier spectra of the three components of the wind velocity fluctuations are similar to each other. The quadrant representation of momentum transport shows the scale difference of the transport. The large-scale fluctuations mainly contribute to the downward transport of momentum. 34/ 84 TI = An application of boundary element method analysis for Helmholtz wave equation in inhomogeneous media AU = Tomioka, S., Kagata, M., Itoh, H., Nisiyama, S., Enoto, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan) SO = Trans. Inst. Electr. Eng. Jpn. A (Japan), vol.115-A, no.11, 1098-104, Nov. 1995 PU = Inst. Electr. Eng. Japan AB = Inhomogeneous terms in boundary element method (BEM) analysis are expressed by domain integration. This domain integration reduces the merits of BEM, which are small memory usage and low cost for calculation time. We show a new approach for transformation of the inhomogeneous term from domain integration into boundary integration, using the Helmholtz equation containing an inhomogeneous wave number (such as in a plasma with spatial density distribution). We attempt the correction from the fundamental solution of a homogeneous medium to that of an inhomogeneous medium by considering the phase distance between source and observation point and amplitude of energy in travelling that distance. In an inhomogeneous medium, the path of the wavelet is bent by the spatial distribution of the refractive index, in order to satisfy the Snell refraction law or Fermat`s principle. The phase distance is calculated by the integration along this bent path. The energy flux density of a travelling wavelet is treated as isotropic in the neighbourhood of the source points. However, it is not uniform at the observation point because of bent paths. We calculate the energy flux density at the observation point, considering the angle of radiation at the source point. These corrections lead to a boundary integral equation without the domain integral. 35/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of the energy transfer caused by convective terms: application to the Burgers shock AU = Iima, M., Toh, S. (Div. of Phys. & Astron., Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (USA), vol.52, no.6, PT.A, 6189-201, Dec. 1995 PU = APS through AIP AB = Orthonormal wavelet analysis, which can deal with the information about both space and scale simultaneously, is applied to analyze the energy transfer due to spatial structures. To utilize the concept of "triad interaction" in non-Fourier bases, a simple and appropriate definition of transfer functions is proposed. An essential problem in the use of orthogonal wavelets is a fast oscillation observed in the temporal variations of energy and transfer functions. This oscillation is intrinsic to a wavelet base function and corresponds to "phase" in spatial information. A way to remove the phase is also proposed. These prescriptions are applied to examine the energy transfer process of the Burgers shock as a preliminary work. It is shown that the energy transfer is well separated into ones caused by the mean flow and the velocity held of the shock. Within a scale, those correspond to sweeping and compression, respectively. The mean flow contributes even to the energy transfer across a scale, but it is not substantial. 36/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis for the plane turbulent jet (analysis of large eddy structure) AU = Hui Li, Nozaki, T. (Dept. of Mech. Eng., Kagoshima Univ., Japan) SO = JSME Int. J. B, Fluids Therm. Eng. (Japan), vol.38, no.4, 525-31, Nov. 1995 PU = JSME AB = In this study, wavelet analysis is applied to velocity signals of a plane turbulent jet, in order to investigate the eddy structure in the dimensions of time and scale. First, a review of the definitions and the basic properties of wavelet analysis are introduced, and a revised form of the Mexican hat and the wavelet power spectrum are proposed. To illustrate some typical behaviors of the wavelet coefficient phase, a numerically generated signal is analyzed. Then from the velocity signals of a jet on the centerline and in the mixing layer, the structural features of the eddy are analyzed in terms of instantaneous frequency and onset time/position. The results reveal that eddies of very different scale and the breakdown of a large eddy are displayed in the wavelet coefficient phase, as well as the successive branchings of a large eddy structure. Furthermore, it is found that the scale of the eddy and intermittency in the mixing layer can be obtained by wavelet analysis. The wavelet power spectra agree fairly well with the Fourier power spectra and just correspond to the actual kinetic energy per unit time at each wave number. 37/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of dispersive stress waves AU = Kishimoto, K. (Fac. of Eng., Tokyo Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = JSME Int. J. A, Mech. Mater. Eng. (Japan), vol.38, no.4, 416-24, Oct. 1995 AB = The time-frequency analysis of dispersive stress waves is reviewed. It is shown that the wavelet transform using the Gabor wavelet effectively decomposes the strain response into its time-frequency components, and the peaks of the time-frequency distribution indicate the arrival times of waves. The flexural waves induced in a beam by lateral impact are considered and it is shown that the wavelet transform enables us to identify the dispersion relation of the group velocity, and to estimate the impact location. In addition, the potential of using the wavelet transform for more detailed nondestructive evaluation of material damage is shown. 38/ 84 TI = Nonlinear time-frequency domain operators for decomposing sounds into loudness, pitch and timbre AU = Abe, M., Ando, S. (Dept. of Math. Eng. & Inf. Phys., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = 1995 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.95CH35732), 1368-71 vol.2, 5 vol. 3662, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = We propose a method for decomposing instantaneous changes of sounds into three energy components, i.e., loudness, pitch, and timbre. These operators are derived from an eigenstructure analysis of the time- frequency gradient space (a 3-D space spanned by a modulus and partial derivatives of a wavelet transform). By several experiments, we found that they have superior resolution and sensitivity for segmenting speech into phonemes, characterizing dynamical nature of musical sounds, and so on. 39/ 84 TI = ECG data compression by multiscale peak analysis AU = Nakashizuka, M., Kikuchi, H., Makino, H., Ishii, I. (Fac. of Eng., Niigata Univ., Japan) SO = 1995 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.95CH35732), 1105-8 vol.2, 5 vol. 3662, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = The paper presents an ECG data compression technique using multiscale peak analysis. The authors define multiscale peak analysis as the wavelet maxima representation of which the basic wavelet is the second derivative of a symmetric smoothing function. The wavelet transform of an ECG shows maxima at the start, peak and stop points of five transient waves P through T. The number of wavelet maxima is expected to be less than the number of original data samples. The wavelet maxima can be enough to reconstruct original signals precisely. The wavelet maxima representation can lead to ECG data compression and analysis. The compressed data still keep the peaks of QRS waves, and abnormal behavior search will be feasible in practice. The result of the compression shows that a normal ECG data is compressed by a factor 10. 40/ 84 TI = Wavelet transform based ECG data compression with desired reconstruction signal quality AU = Chen, J., Itoh, S., Hashimoto, T. (Dept. Electr. Eng., Univ. of Electro- Commun., Tokyo, Japan) SO = Proceedings 1994 IEEE-IMS Workshop on Information Theory and Statistics (Cat. No.94TH8100), 84, xi+107, 1994 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = This paper proposes a new coding strategy by which the desired quality of reproduced signal can be guaranteed with the minimum cost of coding rate. The idea was successfully introduced to the DOWT-based coding system for the ECG compression application. 41/ 84 TI = On chaotic aspects of trees AU = Fujimori, S., Endoh, T., Mitsuboshi, K., Ishiwata, K., Akasaka, M., Hiruta, S. (Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tokai Univ., Kanagawa, Japan) SO = ICSD'95. Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE 5th International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics (Cat. No.95CH3476-9), 185- 9, xvi+720, 1995 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = All things degrade and breakdown, and we live in degraded circumstances or we use such things, for example, as electrical insulating materials in electrical engineering etc. Thus it is very important to study and estimate these degradation processes. Almost all cases of solid degradation processes, which are a kind of branching process, have been very difficult to analyze, due to their nonlinearity and complexity, until recent developments of computer and analysing methods such as fractal wavelet, chaotic concepts etc. were proposed. Under such conditions, fractal properties of tree phenomena which are a kind of degradation process of solid insulating materials have been studied and various characteristics obtained. As for the tree phenomena which is a typical branching process, we report some chaotic aspects based on Takens's reconstruction theorem. Thus, the trajectories reconstructed from a series of discharge current pulses accompanied with tree developments are discussed. In this work a different tree pattern from the previous are discussed and further study is based on wavelet analysis, thus, the trajectory of time dependent wavelet coefficients was reconstructed as well as current pulse data. 42/ 84 TI = Signatures of stirring and mixing in the Japan Sea surface temperature patterns in autumn 1993 and spring 1994 AU = Ostrovskii, A.G. (Res. Inst. for Appl. Mech., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, Japan) SO = Geophys. Res. Lett. (USA), vol.22, no.17, 2357-60, 1 Sept. 1995 AB = A wavelet analysis of the NOAA satellite radiometry data shows a remarkable difference in the typical patterns of the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Japan Sea in autumn 1993 and spring 1994. The plumes of irregular shapes with characteristic horizontal scale of less than 30 km developed over the SST field at the beginning of the cooling season when the horizontal temperature gradients were essentially eroded. In contrast, very narrow and elongated up to 100 km streaks appeared at the beginning of the heating season when the temperature gradients were sharp. The spectral analysis of SST results in the power law behavior of k/sup -2.0/ in October and k/sup -2.8/ in May, for the scales ranging from 10 km to 100 km. This research suggests that the surface cooling in the autumn favors the enhancement of three dimensional mixing, while during the onset of heating the horizontal stirring becomes more pronounced at geostrophic turbulence scales. 43/ 84 TI = Wavelet spectra of JACEE events AU = Suzuki, N., Biyajima, M., Ohsawa, A. (Matsusho Gakuen Junior Coll., Matsumoto, Japan) SO = Prog. Theor. Phys. (Japan), vol.94, no.1, 91-103, July 1995 AB = Pseudo-rapidity distributions of two high multiplicity events Ca-C and Si-AgBr observed by the JACEE are analyzed by a wavelet transform. Wavelet spectra of the events are calculated and compared with the simulation calculations. The wavelet spectrum of the Ca-C event somewhat resembles that simulated with the uniform random numbers. That of Si-AgBr event, however, is not reproduced by simulation calculations with Poisson random numbers, uniform random numbers, or a p-model. 44/ 84 TI = Flow instability during crystal growth from the melt AU = Kakimoto, K. (Fundamental Res. Labs., NEC Corp., Ibaraki, Japan) SO = Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (UK), vol.30, no.2-3, 191-215, 1995 AB = Quality of semiconductor and oxide crystals grown from the melts in Czochralski crystal growth systems is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer in the melts during growth. This paper reviews the present understanding of this heat and mass transfer, especially melt convection, from the results of flow visualization by using model and real semiconductor melts to the details of numerical calculation needed for quantitative modeling of melt convection. The characteristics of flow instabilities of melt convection with a low Prandtl number are also reviewed by focusing on the baroclinic, the Rayleigh-Benard, and thermocapillary-Benard instabilities from the viewpoints of temperature and of the effect of rotation during crystal growth. The origin of the flow instabilities is also reviewed on the basis of geostrophic hydrodynamics, and the question whether silicon flow is completely turbulent or has an ordered structure is discussed. Magnetic suppression of melt flow is also reviewed, and some research on new approaches to growth from the melt including molecular dynamics and wavelet transformation are introduced. 45/ 84 TI = Multiple scattering of SH waves in 2-D elastic media with distributed cracks AU = Murai, Y., Kawahara, J., Yamashita, T. (Earthquake Res. Inst., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = Geophys. J. Int. (UK), vol.122, no.3, 925-37, Sept. 1995 AB = Computes synthetic seismograms of SH waves that are multiply scattered by randomly distributed cracks. All the cracks are assumed to have the same length and strike direction; the crack surfaces are assumed to be stress-free, or to undergo viscous friction. The authors analyse the deterministic wave equation, and rigorously treat multiple crack interactions. They first calculate the wavefield in the wavenumber domain, and then obtain the time-domain solution by its Fourier transform. A plane wave whose time dependence is described by the Ricker wavelet is assumed to be incident upon the region of crack distribution. The scattered waves are efficiently excited when the half- wavelength of the incident wave is close to or shorter than the crack length. High-wavenumber components are shown to be more abundant in the scattered waves when the crack distribution is denser. The time delay of the arrival of the primary wave, due to crack scattering, is prominent when the wavelength of the incident wave is much longer than the crack length. When the crack surfaces are subject to viscous friction, both the amplitudes of the scattered waves and the time delay of the primary-wave arrivals are smaller than those for the case of stress-free crack surfaces. When the crack distribution is statistically homogeneous, the calculated attenuation coefficient and phase velocity of the primary wave are generally consistent with those obtained by a stochastic analysis based on Foldy's (1945) approximation. 46/ 84 TI = Two-scale relations in one-dimensional crystals and wavelets AU = Kaneda, K., Odagaki, T. (Dept. of Phys., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, Japan) SO = J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. (UK), vol.28, no.15, 4389-406, 7 Aug. 1995 AB = We present a complete analysis of scale transformation of the Bloch functions and the Wannier functions in one-dimensional lattices, when a cell twice as large as the primitive cell is taken as the periodic unit. We obtain the Wannier functions for a free electron imposing an artificial periodicity and show that the Wannier functions satisfy the properties of the wavelets and wavelet packets of the multi-resolution analysis. We show that the coefficients appearing in the scale transformation of the Wannier functions for a free electron also serve as the expansion coefficients for the scale transformation of the Bloch functions and the Wannier functions in general one-dimensional lattices. Finally, we argue the importance of the translational symmetry based on the minimal primitive cell in determining the Wannier functions. 47/ 84 TI = Optical implementation of a wavelet transform by the use of dynamic holographic recording in a photorefractive material AU = Joseph, J., Oura, T., Minemoto, T. (Dept. of Instrum. Eng., Kobe Univ., Japan) SO = Appl. Opt. (USA), vol.34, no.20, 3997-4003, 10 July 1995 AB = An optical system that employs holographic recording in a photorefractive material is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the implementation of a wavelet transform of two-dimensional images. A scaling operation, to derive the family of wavelet filters from a mother wavelet filter, is performed by the use of an optical feedback loop. The selection of a desired wavelet filter from the family and the correlation for a wavelet transformation are made by the use of a holographic recording in a photorefractive material. The principle of operation of the system relies on the frequency detuning introduced inside the loop and the subsequent variation in the holographic grating diffraction. Experimental results on wavelet-filter selection and wavelet transformation are presented. This nonlinear optical wavelet-transform system is advantageous for pattern recognition applications. 48/ 84 TI = Gabor transform and intermittency in turbulence AU = Katsuyama, T., Inoue, M., Nagata, K. (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Japan) SO = Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top. (USA), vol.51, no.6, PT.A, 5571-6, June 1995 AB = Intermittency effects basically limited to the viscous subrange contaminate the Gabor filtering analysis in the inertial subrange. The contamination decreases with an increase in the quality factor of the filter, and the Gabor transform coefficients of turbulent velocity have scaling properties approaching the Kolmogorov scaling. In the limit of an infinitely long inertial range, there is no anomalous scaling, i.e., no non-Gaussianity. The wavelet transform coefficients of turbulent velocity and its structure functions follow probability rules depending on the scales extracted by analyzing wavelet functions. This anomalous scaling property is produced by the intermittency effects inherent in the viscous subrange. The structure functions cannot extract properties in a pure inertial subrange. 49/ 84 TI = Real-valued harmonic wavelets AU = Mouri, H., Kubotani, H. (Meteorol. Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Japan) SO = Phys. Lett. A (Netherlands), vol.201, no.1, 53-60, 15 May 1995 AB = We propose new families of orthonormal wavelets, constructed from simple functions, band-limited in the frequency domain, and real-valued in the space domain. Algorithms for their discrete computation, which will be useful in time-frequency analyses of nonlinear phenomena, are also described. 50/ 84 TI = Time correlation between entropy and/or energy distributed into scales by 2D wavelet in 2D free-convective turbulence AU = Toh, S. (Dept. of Phys., Kyoto Univ., Japan) SO = J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.64, no.3, 685-9, MARCH 1995 AB = To understand how entropy (T/sup 2//2) is cascaded to smaller scales and kinetic energy is transferred to larger scales, temporal evolutions of the entropies and the energies distributed into several scales by 2D wavelet are examined numerically. The correlation coefficient of entropy between adjacent scales has a sharp peak and the delay time giving this peak is scaled as k/sup -2/5/. The direction of energy transfer is not fixed but reverses occasionally between normal and inverse. 51/ 84 TI = Optical wavelet-matched filtering by four-wave mixing in photorefractive media AU = Widjaja, J., Tomita, Y. (Dept. of Electron. Eng., Univ. of Electro- Commun., Tokyo, Japan) SO = Opt. Commun. (Netherlands), vol.117, no.1-2, 123-6, 15 May 1995 AB = A novel real-time optical processor is proposed for implementing wavelet-matched filtering that uses four-wave mixing in photorefractive media. An edge enhancement property of the wavelet transform and an improved pattern recognition capability of the proposed method are demonstrated experimentally. The results verify the usefulness of the proposed method compared to the conventional matched filtering by four- wave mixing. 52/ 84 TI = Application of eddy current testing inspection to the first wall of fusion reactor with wavelet analysis AU = Gangzhu Chen, Yoshida, Y., Miya, K., Uesaka, M. (Nucl. Eng. Res. Lab., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = Fusion Eng. Des. (Netherlands), vol.29, 309-16, 1995 AB = The eddy current testing (ECT) technique is introduced for the non- destructive evaluation of the first wall of a fusion reactor. With the aim of in-service inspection of the first wall, a method to evaluate cracks in the first wall is studied theoretically utilizing impedance signals and magnetic field data obtained from ECT. From the impedance signals, the depth of the cracks is determined using an impedance-depth calibrating curve. Since an impedance signal may be caused by some undesired factors as well as by a crack, an approach to extracting crack information from such a composite signal is developed using wavelet analysis. For reconstruction of the surface shape of the cracks, the magnetic field data are inverted into the distribution of the current vector potential T by solving an inverse problem and the wavelet coefficients of T are calculated to characterize the shape of the cracks. It is shown that the combination of ECT and wavelet analysis provides an efficient method of non-destructive evaluation of cracks in the first wall. 53/ 84 TI = Broad-band light-wave correlation topography using wavelet transform AU = Itoh, M., Yamada, R., Tian, R., Tsai, M., Yatagai, T. (Inst. of Appl. Phys., Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki, Japan) SO = Opt. Rev. (Japan), vol.2, no.2, 135-8, MARCH-APRIL 1995 AB = The absolute longitudinal distance between two points can be determined by the corresponding correlation peaks of two light-waves from a broad- band light source. Using this technique, the height of three- dimensional objects can be measured without 2 pi phase ambiguity. We can also detect the absolute position of scattering seeds in sub- surface or bulk materials such as defects, dislocations or impurities of high purity materials. The wavelet analysis is used to determine the correlation peaks. This technique can be applied to measurement of thickness of a few hundred microns. 54/ 84 TI = Structure of heat transfer in the thermal layer growing in a fully developed turbulent flow AU = Nagano, Y., Sato, H., Tagawa, M. (Dept. of Mech. Eng., Nagoya Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = Turbulent Shear Flows 9. Selected Papers from the Ninth International Symposium on Turbulent Shear Flows, 343-64, ix+471, 1995 PU = Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany AB = An experimental investigation of the transport processes of heat has been made in the thermal entrance region of a fully developed turbulent pipe flow. Statistical quantities closely related to turbulent heat transfer have been measured and analyzed. Basic data presented can be used for assessing or developing a turbulence model for heat transfer. Turbulence quantities such as the temperature intermittency factor and the skewness and flatness factors of temperature fluctuations are found to have similarities in the growing thermal layer. Also, from the results of conditions analyses, the weighted probability density function of a turbulent heat flux, and the wavelet transform of velocity and temperature fluctuations, it becomes evident that the ejection-type fluid motions dominate the heat transfer in the outer intermittent region and play a key role in the evolution of the thermal boundary layer. 55/ 84 TI = An experimental system to detect focal length by using Haar wavelet transform AU = Sugiura, A., Inatsu, M. (Fac. of Eng., Toyota Technol. Inst., Nagoya, Japan) SO = Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. D-II (Japan), vol.J78D-II, no.2, 213-20, Feb. 1995 AB = A new method for focal length detection by using the wavelet transform to improve efficiency has been proposed. We have adopted the Haar wavelet transform to apply this method to a digital signal system. This method can detect the focal length because of its measuring power at high-frequency components and hill-climbing control. First, we made a comparative study of conventional methods using computer simulations. Afterwards, we studied the effects of this experimental system. Since this method is in use as an integrator for the Haar unit base, the processing system has a much more simplified structure. 56/ 84 TI = Applications of high-resolution active-matrix liquid crystal spatial light modulators to parallel optical processing AU = Itoh, Y., Hiraide, C., Kodate, K., Ogawa, K., Hashimoto, N., Morokawa, S. (Dept. of Math. & Phys. Sci., Japan Women's Univ., Tokyo, Japan) SO = Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (USA), vol.2175, 200-7, 1994 AB = Real-time (video frame rate) optical correlation and wavelet transformation using high-resolution LCTV-SLMs and Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) have been studied. In the systems, the LCTV-SLMs are used as real-time optical filtering devices in Fourier planes and the Fresnel zone plates are used as Fourier transformation devices. In the experiment, good optical performance has been achieved. From the results, it is confirmed that the Fresnel zone plates are suitable devices for parallel optics and using them, they can be extended parallel optical systems easily. 57/ 84 TI = Reconstruction of defects from the distribution of current vector potential T using wavelets AU = Gangzhu Chen, Yoshida, Y., Miya, K., Kurokawa, M. (Nucl. Eng. Res. Lab., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mater. (Netherlands), vol.5, no.3, 189-99, Oct. 1994 AB = In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct two-dimensional defects. The method is a combination of the eddy current testing technique and the wavelet theory. In the present method, the defects are reconstructed through detecting the discontinuities of the eddy current field. The distribution of the current vector potential T is first determined by using the magnetic field data from eddy current testing; then, the T distribution is decomposed into wavelets to detect the discontinuities of the eddy current field. With the detected discontinuities, the shape and size of the defects can be reconstructed accurately. 58/ 84 TI = The Wigner transform of soliton solutions for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation AU = Konno, H., Lomdahl, P.S. (Inst. of Mater. Sci., Tsukuba Univ., Japan) SO = J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.63, no.11, 3967-73, Nov. 1994 AB = The Wigner function, a kind of wavelet transform is studied for one- and two-soliton solutions to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The exact expression of the Wigner transform for the one-soliton solution is obtained. The features of soliton-soliton interaction of different two-soliton states, the states of coherence analogous to that of two- localized wave packets in quantum mechanics, are displayed. Suitability of this transform for analyzing "soliton" in open systems is also discussed. 59/ 84 TI = Vertical structure of atmospheric gravity waves revealed by the wavelet analysis AU = Sato, K., Yamada, M. (Center for Climate Syst. Res., Tokyo Univ., Japan) SO = J. Geophys. Res. (USA), vol.99, no.D10, 20623-31, 20 Oct. 1994 AB = It is well known that the vertical wavenumber (m) spectra of temperature and horizontal wind fluctuations have a steep slope (almost proportional to m/sup -3/) in the middle atmosphere. These spectra are considered to be due to saturated gravity waves. However, since power spectral analysis assumes sinusoidal waves with constant amplitudes in the height region for which the spectra are calculated, the information on the height position, where the disturbance having each wavenumber is dominant, is lost. In this paper the dominant height position is examined using a wavelet method. An analysis is made of temperature observation data by radiosondes and wind data by a mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere (MST) radar in the lower stratosphere. It is shown that the height where the variance is largest increases with the wavenumber. This variation with wavenumber is explained well by a monochromatic inertia-gravity wave whose vertical wavenumber changes due to the vertical shear of the large-scale background wind during its vertical propagation. 60/ 84 TI = An algorithm for making a correspondence of zero-crossing points in a wavelet transform domain with a second-order derivative property AU = Watanabe, S., Cheong, C., Saito, T., Aizawa, K. (Fac. of Eng., Kanagawa Univ., Yokohama, Japan) SO = Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. A (Japan), vol.J77-A, no.8, 1084-95, Aug. 1994 AB = Multi-scale wavelet transform (MWT) is a promising technique for multi- scale signal analysis. In particular, the zero-crossing points produced by the MWT with the property of second derivative appear at edge points of the original signal. Most of the image contents are conveyed by edge information. Hence, if we obtain a correspondence of zero-crossing points between consecutive lines or frames, we may utilize the correspondence to advance various facets of image processing. Firstly, this paper deals with algorithms for making a correspondence of zero- crossing points in the MWT domain between consecutive scales or between two signals with remarkable likeness. Particularly with regard to the correspondence between two like signals, we consider various factors which qualify the property of the correspondence, and thus we define the cost-function. Secondly, we construct a method of evaluating the goodness of the behavior of the correspondence algorithm subjectively by applying the statistical concept of the cross validation to the interline correspondence problem, and experimentally show both the usefulness and the disadvantage of the proposed correspondence algorithm. 61/ 84 TI = New analysis of HRV through wavelet transform AU = Tsuji, H., Mori, H. (Commun. Res. Lab., Minist. of Posts & Telecommun., Tokyo, Japan) SO = Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Interact. (USA), vol.6, no.2, 205-17, APRIL-June 1994 AB = This article introduces a new analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using the wavelet transform (WT) in place of conventional methods. This transform maps the signal into a two-dimensional function on a time- scale plane. It allows us to precisely determine the location and the power of the HRV spectrum. We apply this method to empirical data containing several stress factors and detect a decrease in power at high frequencies when subjects hyperventilate. We can use this method to detect peaks of power at lower frequencies. We analyze the WT results statistically to determine the relationship between frequency bands at each condition. The correlation coefficients for the WT results between scales change when the stress factors are given. This method reveals the characteristics of the power spectrum at lower frequencies. These are known to play an important role in the modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This method can be useful in studying computer users' stress responses under different working conditions. 62/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of meteorological variables under winter thunderclouds over the Japan Sea AU = Takeuchi, N., Narita, K., Goto, Y. (Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan) SO = J. Geophys. Res. (USA), vol.99, no.D5, 10751-7, 20 May 1994 AB = To investigate a winter thundercloud structure, the authors have been acquiring data on the electrostatic field and the meteorological variables over a full winter season. The obtained data were investigated by a wavelet transform method that is a mathematical technique introduced recently for analyzing seismic and acoustic signals. Microscopic variations in time series of the pressure and the wind speed are extracted from nonprocessed ones using a moving average method, then analyzed by a wavelet method. For each variable, wavelet transform coefficients (modulus) are displayed using gray scales as its grade. These figures provide a clearly interpretable visual representation of time series signals. Namely, it is easily understood what significant scales exist at the concerned time. Mutual correlation coefficients of modulus between the pressure and the wind speed variation are also calculated to clarify how these two variables are related to each other. A scale parameter and a phase shift in time are adopted as 2D coordinates in the same manner as the wavelet transform. This figure shows whether there is a strong correlation between the two variables or not, and if so, its time and/or position. When thunderclouds pass near the observation station, characteristic oscillations are detected in a pressure variation. A strong correlation between the pressure and the wind speed has been proved by a method of a wavelet transform method. On the other hand, when the climate is quiet, there is no correlation. 63/ 84 TI = Generation of optical Haar wavelets by zone plates AU = Zhan He, Susumu Sato (Dept. of Electron., Akita Univ., Japan) SO = Opt. Lett. (USA), vol.19, no.10, 686-8, 15 May 1994 AB = Optical Haar wavelets are generated by zone plates that are designed to realize the bipolar nature of Haar wavelets. We present a circular Haar wavelet in two-dimensional space, which can extract the edge and corner features simultaneously, and characterize its properties with computer simulations. A comparison with rectangular Haar wavelets is also given. 64/ 84 TI = Signal reconstruction from modified auditory wavelet transform AU = Irino, T., Kawahara, H. (Basic Res. Labs., NTT, Tokyo, Japan) SO = IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (USA), vol.41, no.12, 3549-54, Dec. 1993 AB = The authors propose a new method for signal modification in auditory peripheral representation: an auditory wavelet transform and algorithms for reconstructing a signal from a modified wavelet transform. They present the characteristics of signal analysis, synthesis, and reconstruction and also the data reduction criteria for signal modification. 65/ 84 TI = Wavelet transform analysis of slightly rough surfaces AU = Dogariu, A., Uozumi, J., Asakura, T. (Res. Inst. for Electron. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan) SO = Opt. Commun. (Netherlands), vol.107, no.1-2, 1-5, 1 APRIL 1994 AB = The diffuse component of the light scattered by a slightly rough surface is described in terms of the two-dimensional wavelet transform of the surface height variation. From the values of the integrated intensity in the transform domain, the autocorrelation function of the surface height variation can be directly obtained. 66/ 84 TI = Evaluation of correspondence between sensitive information and physical parameters on drums timbre AU = Uenoyama, T., Kashimura, M., Ozawa, S. (Fac. of Sci. & Technol., Keio Univ., Yokohama, Japan) SO = J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.49, no.10, 671-81, Oct. 1993 AB = In this decade, as digital signal processing technology is getting developed, the digital music synthesizer with high-quality and various timbre, which employs a digital analysis-synthesis, has become popular. Most current analysis-synthesis system in such synthesizers treat only physical parameters which have no correspondence to subjective human expression. From the point of view of a man-machine interface, it is desirable to emply a system which treats subjective expression of human. Recently, it has been required to develop such a processing system. To build such system, the numerical correspondence information between physical parameters and sensitive information becomes necessary. In this paper, the correspondence information between physical parameters and sensitive information is obtained. It has been difficult to analyze or synthesize a drum tone for high quality. In this paper, an analysis-synthesis system based on wavelet transform is proposed. Using the SD method, numerical sensitive information of humans for timbre is obtained. Moreover, two application systems using the correspondence information are proposed. The first is a timbre- evaluation system for subjective expression, and the second one is a timbre-processing system. Using these application systems, the appropriateness of the correspondence information is verified. 67/ 84 TI = Detection of anomalous seismic phases by the wavelet transform AU = Yomogida, K. (Dept. of Earth and Planetary Syst. Sci., Hiroshima Univ., Japan) SO = Geophys. J. Int. (UK), vol.116, no.1, 119-30, Jan. 1994 AB = Strong motion data at La Union, one of three near-fault stations of the Michoacan, Mexico, earthquake in 1985, are analysed by a wavelet transform in order to identify a clear later energy arrival whose frequency content and particle motion are quite different from the main part of the seismograms. The author used an orthonormal set of analysing wavelets, a discrete wavelet transform, proposed by Meyer and Yamada, with which an efficient computational procedure can be achieved utilizing the fast Fourier transform. Results of an application of the above wavelet transform to three-component velocity data of La Union are summarized as follows. A vertical seismogram does not contain any distinguishable later energy arrivals for the entire frequency range recorded. The major energy arrives in the time interval between 10 and 30 s. In contrast, an east-west component seismogram shows a peculiar later arrival more than 10 s later than the main energy arrival, and the present wavelet analysis shows that this later phase is characterized by an arrival time of 38 s and a frequency range from 0.1 to 1 Hz where the amplitude of the later phase is even larger than the main part. This example clearly demonstrates the potential of wavelet transforms to identify objectively any phase in seismograms localized in both time and frequency. From the information on its particle motion, the above phase corresponds to a heterogeneous and delayed break of one stronger portion on a fault on which the rupture was very smooth or 'crack-like' elsewhere. 68/ 84 TI = Wavelet analysis of anharmonic self-localized modes AU = Hori, K. (Graduate Sch. Major of Mater. Sci., Fac. of Eng. & Design, Kyoto Inst. of Technol, Japan) SO = J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.62, no.6, 1819-22, June 1993 AB = A wavelet analysis is made for one-dimensional anharmonic self- localized modes by decomposition of their time evolution signals. For a localized mode with eigenfrequency above the top of the harmonic frequency band, the finest-resolution wavelet coefficients are sufficient for analysis of the position of the center point of the mode, and the degree of mode localization. 69/ 84 TI = The recognition system with two channels at different resolution for detecting spike in human EEG AU = Zheng-Wei Tang, Ishii, N. (Fac. of Eng., Nagoya Inst. of Technol., Japan) SO = IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. (Japan), vol.E76-D, no.3, 377-87, MARCH 1993 AB = The properties of the Haar transform (HT) are discussed, based on the wavelet transform theory. A system with two channels at resolution 2/sup -1/ and 2/sup -2/ for detecting paroxysm-spike in human's EEG is presented according to the multiresolution properties of the HT. The system adopts a coarse-to-fine strategy. Three features of spikes are extracted by investigating its intrinsic properties based on the HT. In the case of having no knowledge of prior probability of the presence of spike, the Neyman-Pearson criteria is applied to determining thresholds on the basis of the probability distribution of background and spike, obtained by the results of statistical analysis to minimize error probability. The HT coefficients at resolution 2/sup -2/ and 2/sup -1/ can be computed individually and the data are compressed by 4:1 and 2:1 respectively. A half wave is regarded as the basic recognition unit so as to be capable of detecting negative and positive spikes simultaneously. The system provides a means of pattern recognition for nonstationary signal including sharp variation points in the transform domain. 70/ 84 TI = Signal reconstruction from modified wavelet transform-An application to auditory signal processing AU = Irino, T., Kawahara, H. (NTT Basic Res. Labs., Tokyo, Japan) SO = ICASSP-92: 1992 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (Cat. No.92CH3103-9), 85-8 vol.1, 5 vol. 3219, 1992 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = A novel method of signal reconstruction from a modified auditory representation is presented. This consists of three parts: (1) an algorithm to reconstruct a signal from its modified wavelet transform with a general wavelet; (2) obtaining an auditory representation using an auditory wavelet transform whose analyzing wavelet is the impulse response of an auditory peripheral model; and (3) estimating the reconstruction algorithm both with and without data reduction. An example of its application to the time-scale modification of speech is presented. High-quality speech successfully generated by time-scale modification shows that the reconstruction method is suitable for various applications as well as making experimental auditory stimuli. 71/ 84 TI = An application of wavelet transform to ultrasonic measurements of random media AU = Kikuchi, T., Sato, S. (Electrotech. Lab., Ibaraki, Japan) SO = IEEE 1991 Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings. (Cat. No.91CH3079-1), 1171- 6 vol.2, 2 vol. 1386, 1991 PU = IEEE, New York, NY, USA AB = The application of wavelet transform for a high resolution ultrasonic measurement is described. Wavelet transform is one of the time- frequency analysis methods and is suitable for finding abrupt changes in the waveform. The authors have been trying to apply this method for detecting separating positions of scatterers in random media. It has been found by calculations and experiments that this method can be used for characterization of random media. 72/ 84 TI = Speech information and acoustic signal processing technology AU = Kobayashi, Y., Sugamura, N., Touyama, M., Koizumi, N. (Human Interface Labs., NTT Corp., Tokyo, Japan) SO = NTT R & D (Japan), vol.41, no.11, 1269-78, 1992 AB = The paper outlines the major recent research activities at NTT Laboratories into creating new communication services using speech information and acoustic signal processing technology. It focuses on text-to-speech synthesis based on wavelet compilation of phoneme segments, a speech recognition PC board and an HMM-based speaker- independent word spotting board, speech coding techniques for the telephone, wideband speech and sound signals, acoustic signal processing including an echo canceller, and sound image control for super realistic telecommunications. 73/ 84 TI = Statistical analysis of letter-cognition-related evoked potentials using the wavelet transform AU = Nagae, N., Itoh, S., Utsunomiya, T. (Fac. of Sci. & Technol. Sci., Tokyo Univ. Noda, Japan) SO = Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. D-II (Japan), vol.J75D-II, no.9, 1624-5, Sept. 1992 AB = The visual evoked potentials related to letter cognition is quantitatively analysed using wavelet transforms. The results show that the evoked potential response related to letter-cognition in brain covers a wide range of frequency, latency and scalp location. 74/ 84 TI = Experimental studies on ultrasonic measurements of scattering media by using wavelet transform AU = Kikuchi, T., Sato, S. (Electrotech. Lab., Ibaraki, Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (Japan), vol.31, SUPPL.31-1, 115-17, 1992 AB = The authors describe the application of wavelet transform for a high resolution ultrasonic measurement. Wavelet transform is one of the methods of time-frequency analysis and is suitable for finding abrupt changes in the waveform. They have been trying to apply this method for detecting positions of point scatterers in random media, and it was found by calculations and experiments that this method can be used for characterization of random media. 75/ 84 TI = Further evidence of triggering chorus emissions from wavelets in the hiss band AU = Hattori, K., Hayakawa, M., Lagoutte, D., Parrot, M., Lefeuvre, F. ( Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Japan) SO = Planet. Space Sci. (UK), vol.39, no.11, 1465-72, Nov. 1991 AB = Reports spectral analyses and direction finding for ELF data containing simultaneous hiss and chorus in the outer magnetosphere. Each chorus element has a tendency to originate from the hiss band and is asymptotic to the hiss band; the intensity and occurrence of the chorus are closely correlated with the intensity of the underlying hiss; the hiss band exhibits structures or wavelets (i.e. monochromatic wave components with significant duration), and the causative wavelet is observed at the foot of each chorus element; when triggering chorus is expected from a wavelet near the upper edge of the hiss band, the duration of the wavelet increases with decreasing intensity; and very similar phi (azimuthal angle) values are noticed for both the hiss and chorus. These facts imply that a wavelet existing near the upper edge of the hiss band can generate a chorus emission through coherent wave- particle interaction in the outer magnetosphere. 76/ 84 TI = An identification of energy cascade in turbulence by orthonormal wavelet analysis AU = Yamada, M., Ohkitani, K. (Disaster Prevention Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Uji, Japan) SO = Prog. Theor. Phys. (Japan), vol.86, no.4, 799-815, Oct. 1991 AB = Orthonormal wavelet expansion method is applied to an analysis of atmospheric turbulence data which shows more than two decades of the inertial subrange spectrum. The result of the orthonormal wavelet analysis of the turbulence data is discussed in comparison with those of an artificial random noise. The local wavelet spectra of turbulence show a characteristic structure, which is absent in the artificial random noise and is identified with the trace of the energy cascade process. The higher-order structure function of velocity, obtained by the wavelet analysis shows the intermittent structure of the flow field. 77/ 84 TI = Orthonormal wavelet analysis of turbulence AU = Yamada, M., Ohkitani, K. (Disaster Prevention Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Uji, Japan) SO = Fluid Dyn. Res. (Netherlands), vol.8, no.1-4, 101-15, Oct. 1991 AB = The orthonormal wavelet expansion method is applied to data of atmospheric turbulence extending over more than two decades in Kolmogorov's inertial subrange. First, the orthonormal wavelet expansion is described and a numerical scheme for the expansion coefficients is proposed. Then, by the use of the orthonormal wavelets, several characteristics of turbulence are discussed in comparison with those of artificial, random noise. In particular, the local wavelet spectra of turbulence show a similarity structure, which is absent in the artificial random noise and is identified with the trace of the energy cascade process. 78/ 84 TI = STM investigations of the grain surface of Bi/sub 0.8/Pb/sub x/Sr/sub 1/Cu/sub 1.6/O/sub 8+y/ superconductors AU = Chao, C., Arai, S. (Tokyo Denki Univ., Japan) SO = Advances in Superconductivity II. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS '89), 529-32, xxxi+1085, 1990 PU = Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan AB = Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the surface topographs of bared crystal grains in Pb-free or Pb-doped Bi/sub 0.8/Pb/sub x/Sr/sub 1/Ca/sub 1/Cu/sub 1.6/O/sub 8+y/, x=0.0 approximately 0.5, bulk superconductors. Images with a scanning electron microscopy resolution revealed that the profiles of the grain surface was in the form of a periodic rugged wavelet with the amplitude of 10 nm and the length of 20 nm. This result was considered to provide direct proof for the percolation processes between randomly oriented grains and grain boundaries in bulk superconductors. 79/ 84 TI = Orthonormal wavelet expansion and its application to turbulence AU = Yamada, M., Ohkitani, K. (Disaster Prevention Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., Uji, Japan) SO = Prog. Theor. Phys. (Japan), vol.83, no.5, 819-23, May 1990 AB = Orthonormal wavelet expansion is applied to experimental data of turbulence. A direct relation is found between the wavelet spectrum and the Fourier spectrum. The orthonormal wavelet analysis with conditional sampling is applied to data of wind turbulence, yielding Kolmogorov's spectrum (1962) and the dissipation correlation with the intermittency exponent mu approximately=0.2. 80/ 84 TI = Seismic waves traveling through a dike-like structure AU = Motoya, Y. (Res. Center for Earthquake Prediction, Fac. of Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan) SO = J. Phys. Earth (Japan), vol.37, no.3, 233-8, 1989 AB = In this letter the authors report a characteristic wavelet observed at Hidaka (HIC) station, one of the seismographic stations operated by the Research Center for Earthquake Prediction, Hokkaido University. A main shock-aftershock sequence occurred near HIC on June 17, 1980. All the six events of the sequence observed at HIC showed a small but conspicuous wavelet before the large main phase. The characteristics of the wavelet are summarized. In order to explain the characteristics of the wavelet, the authors assume a P wave transmitting through a bar- like structure; the quantity of both amplitudes and periods of incident seismic waves might turn to the characteristic one which is dependent on the shape of the bar. The authors performed a laboratory model experiment to simulate the generation of the wavelet. 81/ 84 TI = A rigorous solution of two-dimensional diffraction based on the Huygens- Fresnel principle AU = Nonogaki, S. (Central Res. Lab., Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) SO = Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Pap. Short Notes (Japan), vol.28, no.5, 786-90, May 1989 AB = The problem of two-dimensional diffraction of light by a slit is solved rigorously on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle assuming the amplitude of a secondary wavelet emitted from an infinite strip of infinitesimal width on the slip aperture to be proportional to cos ( theta /2)/ square root r, where theta is the angle of diffraction and r the distance from the strip. The solution of the problem where a plane- wave of light is normally incident on a slit in a perfectly black screen is expressed in terms of the Fresnel integral. With slight modification, the method is also applicable to the diffraction in a light-absorbing medium. 82/ 84 TI = Performance of a linear array transducer of vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene copolymer AU = Kimura, K., Hashimoto, N., Ohigashi, H. (Toray Ind. Inc., Kamakura, Japan) SO = IEEE Trans. Sonics & Ultrason. (USA), vol.SU-32, no.4, 566-73, July 1985 AB = A 5-MHz 64-element linear transducer composed of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF-TrFE)) has been developed and its performance studied. The transducer has high resolution in both lateral and depth directions and has energy conversion efficiency high enough to be used for practical applications. The electroacoustic conversion loss (CL) and the pulse-echo ring-down period are found. The experimental values are in good agreement with theoretical ones calculated with Mason's equivalent circuit in which the internal losses of a piezoelectric material are taken into account. The ultrasonic field distribution from the array is also in good agreement with the simulations obtained using a numerical Huygens' wavelet approach for pulse waves. The maximum cross-coupling voltage between the nearest neighbor elements 10% of the driving voltage. This degree of cross- coupling does not appreciably degrade the ultrasonic field distribution. A medical echogram taken with this transducer is shown. It s lateral and depth resolutions on the focal plane are 1.5 mm and 0.75 mm, respectively. 83/ 84 TI = Ion scattering at the surface-elastic and inelastic scattering, and neutralization AU = Ohtsuki, Y. (Dept. of Phys., Waseda Univ., Tokyo, Japan) SO = J. Vac. Soc. Jpn. (Japan), vol.26, no.2, 61-8, 1983 AB = Ion motion caused by potentials on a solid surface has not yet been elucidated, although the motion is a matter of great importance. This paper deals with: (1) local stopping power in inelastic scattering of ion beams; (2) surface plasmon excitations due to motion of valence electrons; (3) wavelet potentials generated when ions go out from a solid surface; (4) ion neutralization by resonance process; and (5) the probability of ion neutralization by Auger process. 84/ 84 TI = Reconstructed images from volume holograms in the Fraunhofer approximation: analysis by a new spherical-wave expansion AU = Shono, Y. (Dept. of Electrical Engng., Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Tokyo, Japan) SO = J. Opt. Soc. Am. (USA), vol.66, no.6, 564-74, June 1976 AB = The new 'circular plane-wave' expansion which is presented enables a spherical wave and a Huygens's spherical wavelet to be expanded to the sum of circular plane waves. Volume holograms may be analysed, using this method to expand the object wave, and the reconstructed images formulated. The method of analysis is used to study weakly coupled amplitude holograms in the Fraunhofer approximation. Except in the case of exact reconstruction, both amplitude and phase of the reconstructed waves are modulated, in a manner determined by the hologram thickness and the recording and reconstruction parameters. For a semi-transparent object illuminated by a spherical wave, the volume hologram is shown to cause a space-variant bandpass filter effect, with respect to the amplitude modulation, whilst for an object illuminated by a plane wave, the effect is of a space-invariant bandpass filter. Aberrations result from the phase modulation, which is small for a thick hologram. .